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Descriptive Grammar of Nepali and an Analyzed Corpus

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ISBN-10: 0878400737

ISBN-13: 9780878400737

Edition: 1991

Authors: Jayaraj Acharya

List price: $39.95
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Description:

A Descriptive Grammar of Nepali uses the theoretical framework developed by K.L. Pike.
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Book details

List price: $39.95
Copyright year: 1991
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
Publication date: 6/1/1991
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 396
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.320
Language: English

Preface
List of abbreviations
Grammar
Introduction
The Nepali language
The name Nepali
Nepali as an Indo-European language
Nepali and other languages of Nepal
Geographical distribution of Nepali
Dialects of Nepali
Nepali and Hinduism
Previous descriptions of Nepali
Teaching materials
Grammars
Dictionaries
The purpose and scope of this study
Corpus
Transcription
Motivation of this description
The sound system
Segmental Phonemes
Introduction
Phones, phonemes, and allophones
Segmental vs. suprasegmental phonemes
Inventory of the principal consonantal and vowel sounds of Nepali
Symbols employed in the phonetic and phonemic transcription
Listing of the phonemes
Consonant sounds
Definition and classification
Supplementary sets of minimal pairs
Variants of Nepali consonant phonemes
Positional variants
Deletion of aspiration
Deletion of voicing
Nasalization
Minor variations
Distribution of Nepali consonants
Vowel sounds
Definition and classification
Supplementary sets of minimal pairs
Variants of Nepali vowel phonemes
The pronunciation of orthographic word-initial consonant clusters
The pronunciation of long consonants vs. geminates
Gemination as a result of assimilation
Sandhi without gemination
Suprasegmentals in Nepali
Introduction
Inventory of Nepali segmental phonemes
Syllable and syllable structure in Nepali
Light vs. heavy syllables
Light and heavy syllables in Nepali
Phonotactics
Consonantal phonemes in syllable-initial position
Consonantal phonemes in intervocalic position
Consonantal honemes in syllable-coda position
Phonetic stress: Its definition and function of stress in Nepali
Stress and stress placement in Nepali
Stress rules in Nepali
Regular phonetic stress
Nepali phonetic stress rule-1 (NSR-1)
Nepali phonetic stress rule-2 (NSR-2)
Compound words phonetic stress rule (CWSR)
Phrase phonetic stress rule (PSR)
Sentence phonetic stress rule (SSR)
Emphatic functional phonemic stress (ES) for extra semantic emphasis
Emphatic phonemic stress (ES) on free forms
Emphatic stress (ES) on suffixes
Emphatic stress (ES) and vowel lengthening
Emphatic stress (ES) and vowel shortening
Pitch
Juncture
Types of juncture
Minimal pairs for open juncture (+) vs. close juncture (unmarked)
Rhythm
Pause
Intonation
The grammatical role of intonation
The intonation of statement and imperative statements
The intonation of ho/hoina questions
The intonation of K-questions
The communicative role of intonation
The lengthening of high pitch vowel
The lengthening of low pitch vowel
The lengthening of mid-level pitch vowel
The writing system
From phoneme to grapheme and grapheme to phoneme
Introduction
From phoneme to grapheme
Vowels
Free forms of vowels
Conjunct forms of vowels
Glides
Consonants
Free forms of consonant symbols
Conjunct forms of consonant symbols
Regular conjunct forms of the consonant symbols
Irregular conjunct forms of the consonant symbols
Additional symbols: bindu, anusvar and visarga
Bindu
Anusvar
Visarga
From grapheme to phoneme
Vowels
Glides
Consonants
Pronunciation of consonants without the viram stroke
Voiced aspirates
Pronunciation of the symbols [characters not reproducible]
The special consonant conjunct graphemes
The pronunciation of orthographic word-initial CC clusters
The symbol [characters not reproducible]
Numeral
Punctuation marks
The form classes
The inflected and uninflected forms
Introduction
Nouns
Adjectives
Verbs
Adverbs
Pronouns
Coordinating conjunctions
Subordinating conjunctions
Postpositions
Interjections
Vocatives
Nuance particles
Prefixes and suffixes
Substitute forms
Introduction
The major substitute forms
The K-form substitutes or interrogatives
The K-form classes
The distribution of K-forms
The J-form substitutes
The J-form classes
The distribution of J-form classes
The D-form substitutes or demonstratives
The D-form classes
The distribution of D-form classes
Numerals
Notes for Chapter 6
Nominal structures
The common noun phrase
Internal structure of the common-noun phrase
Common nouns as heads
Gender of nouns
Determiners in the CNP
Demonstratives
Limiters
Quantifiers (numbers) and classifiers
CNPs functioning as quantifying determiner
Modifiers in he CNP
Nouns or nominals as modifiers in CNP
Adjectives or adjective phrases as modifiers
Clauses as modifiers
The proper noun phrase
Internal structure of the proper-noun phrase (PNP)
Person names as heads
Place names as heads
Notes for Chapter 8
The pronoun phrase
Internal structure of the pronoun phrase (ProP)
Pronouns as heads
Modifiers in the pronoun phrase
Notes for Chapter 9
Dependent nominals functioning as modifiers in larger nominals
Introduction
Characterizing modifiers
Appositive modifiers: Double-headed constructions
Genitive modifiers
Delimiting modifiers
Adjectival structures
The adjective phrase
Internal structure of the adjective phrase (AdjP)
Adjectives as heads
Quantifiers in the AdjP
Adverbs of quantity
Comparative quantifier phrases
Comparatives with bhanda 'than'
Comparative adjective phrase with jhan 'the more'
Superlative quantifier phrases
Elative superlative quantifier
Dependent adjectivals functioning as modifiers within CNPs
Introduction
The imperfect participle -ne as modifier
The perfect participle -eko as modifier
Adverbial structures
The adverb phrase
Internal structure of the adverb phrase (AdvP)
Simple adverbs
Derived adverbs
Adverbs ending in -ari 'doing'
Adverbs ending in -sath 'with'
Adverbs ending in -purvaka
Nonderived adverbs
Interrogatives, relaters, and demonstratives
Compound adverbials
The adverbial postpositional noun phrase
Introduction
Postposition and its complements (NPs)
Postpositions occurring with the NPs in genitive case
Postpositions occurring with morphologically unmarked forms of the NPs
Conjunctions: Coordinate and subordinate
Introduction
Coordinating conjunctions
Subordinating conjunctions
Interjection, vocatives, and nuance particles
Introduction
Interjections
Vocatives
Nuance particles
Phrasal nuance particles
Statement nuance particles
Imperative statement nuance particles
Declarative statement nuance particles
Question statement nuance particles
Notes for Chapter 16
Verbal structures
The verb phrase
Internal structure of the verb phrase (VP)
Verbs as heads
Auxiliary verbs in the VP
The negative verb forms
The negative prefix na-
The negative suffix -na-
Verbs which require the obligatory fronting of the dative complement
Modifiers in the VP
Notes for Chapter 17
Clausal structures
The clause: A general overview
Internal structure of the clause (Cl)
Verbals as predicates
Subjects in the clause
Complements in the clause
Transitive verbs and their complements
Transitive-1 verbs (tv-1)
Transitive-2 verbs (tv-2)
Transitive-3 verbs (tv-3)
Transitive-4 verbs (tv-4)
Equational verbs and their complements
The identifcational hunu 'be'
The existential hunu 'be'
The equational verbs-2 dekhinu and lagnu
Intransitive verbs and their complements
Intransitive-1 verbs (iv-1)
Intransitive-2 verbs (iv-2)
Intransitive-3 verbs (iv-3)
Subject-predicate linking by person-number-gender-honorific level inflection
Optional adverbial adjuncts
Other optional elements
Adverbial disjuncts (AD)
Exclamations
Connectors
The subjects
Notes for Chapter 18
Special types of clauses
Introduction
Passive clauses
Imperative clauses
Question clauses
K-question clauses
Holhoina-question clauses
Ho/hoina-question with question intonation
Ho/hoina question with the tag hagi
Finite dependent clauses: Nominal, adjectival and adverbial
Introduction
Finite dependent noun clause
Finite dependent adjective clause
Finite dependent adverbial clause with bhane 'if', kinaki or kinabhane 'because'
Nonfinite dependent clauses: Infinitive, participial and conditional
Introduction
Nonfinite dependent noun clause with a verb in infinite form
Nonfinite dependent adverbial clause as adverbial adjunct
Nonfinite dependent adverbial clause with a verb phrase in conditional form
Note for Chapter 21
Dependent clauses in expression of comparison
Introduction
Comparisons of inequality
Symmetrical comparisons
Asymmetrical comparisons
Comparisons of equality
Sentential structures
The sentence
The internal structure of the sentence (S)
Clauses as segmental constituents
The sentence as speech act
Introduction
Direct speech act
Indirect speech acts
Indirect speech acts with re, are
Indirect speech with bhanera
Reporting the actual speech act
Reporting the intention
Elliptical sentences as declarative speech acts
Reduced sentence with elliptical subject and object
Reduced sentences with elliptical predicate
Notes for Chapter 24
References
Analyzed corpus
Naso: Text in Devanagari script
Naso: 'Ward': Literal English translation
Naso: The roman transliteration of the Devanagari text
Naso: Clause structure analysis
Naso: Phrase structures (sorted)
Naso: Lexicon in order of occurrence
Naso: Lexicon in alphabetical order