John Gatto is one of the most vocal proponents of the "free school" movement. A retired New York State public school teacher, Gatto has been named "Teacher of the Year" in both New York City and New York State. In books such as Tyranny of Government Schooling and Dumbing Us Down: The Hidden Curriculum of Compulsory Schooling, Gatto exposes the hidden agendas of public schooling. He advocates a restructuring of learning to better prepare students for life and to foster creativity and intelligence over rote memorization. A frequent lecturer, Gatto has also written many articles outlining his opinions of bureaucratic schools and bureaucratic society, often contrasting contemporary America with 19th century American ideals. Many people use Gatto's philosophies as a basis for the increasingly popular trend toward home schooling.