Basic Statistics and Pharmaceutical Statistical Applications, Second Edition

ISBN-10: 0849337992

ISBN-13: 9780849337994

Edition: 2nd 2006 (Revised)

Authors: James E. De Muth

List price: $104.95
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Description:

Focusing on applications to research, clinical trials, and quality control, Basic Statistics & Pharmaceutical Statistical Applications is a practical, easy-to-use text and reference that builds a basic knowledge of statistics. Accessible and non-threatening, it discusses all of the commonly used statistical tests and presents them with examples and worked out results. The emphasis is on correctly interpreting research results rather than on theory. Thoroughly revised and expanded, this edition includes new chapters on measures of associations, odds and relative risks ratios, and survival statistics. Other new material addresses process capability, tolerance limits, and repeatability/reproducibility.
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Book details

List price: $104.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 5/10/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 744
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.486
Language: English

Introduction
Types of Statistics
Parameters and Statistics
Sampling and Independent Observations
Types of Variables
Independent and Dependent Variables
Selection of the Appropriate Statistical Test
Procedures for Inferential Statistical Tests
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Probability
Classic Probability
Probability Involving Two Variables
Conditional Probability
Probability Distribution
Counting Techniques
Binomial Distribution
Poisson Distribution
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Sampling
Random Sampling
Other Probability Sampling Procedures
Precision, Accuracy, and Bias
Reliability and Validity
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Presentation Modes
Tabulation of Data
Visual Displays for Discrete Variables
Visual Displays for Continuous Variables
Visual Displays for Two or More Continuous Variables
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Measures of Central Tendency
Centers of a Continuous Distribution
Dispersion within a Continuous Distribution
Population versus Sample Measures of Central Tendency
Measurements Related to the Sample Standard Deviation
Trimmed Mean
Alternative Computational Methods for Calculating Central Tendency
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
The Normal Distribution and Data Transformation
The Normal Distribution
Determining if the Distribution is Normal
Data Transformations: An Overview
Lognormal Transformation and the Geometric Mean
Other Types of Transformations
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Confidence Intervals and Tolerance Limits
Sampling Distribution
Standard Error of the Mean versus the Standard Deviation
Confidence Intervals
Statistical Control Charts
Process Capability Indices
Tolerance Limits
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Hypothesis Testing
Hypothesis Testing
Types of Errors
Type I Error
Type II Error and Power
Experimental Errors and Propagation of Errors
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
t-Tests
Parametric Procedures
The t-Distribution
One-Tailed vs. Two-Tailed Tests
One-Sample t-Tests
Two-Sample t-Tests
Corrected Degrees of Freedom for Unequal Variances
One-Sample t-Test Revisited for Critical Value
Matched Pair t-Test (Difference t-Test)
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Hypothesis Testing with the One-Way ANOVA
The F-Distribution
Test Statistic
ANOVA Definitional Formula
ANOVA Computational Formula
Randomized Block Design
Homogeniety of Variance
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Multiple Comparison Tests
Error Associated with Multiple t-Tests
Overview of Multiple Comparison Tests
The q-Statistic
Planned Multiple Comparisons
Bonferroni Adjustment
Sidak Test
Dunn's Multiple Comparisons
Dunnett's Test
Post hoc Procedures
Tukey HSD Test
Student Newman-Keuls Test
Fisher LSD Test
Scheffe Procedure
Scheffe Procedure for Complex Comparisons
Unbalanced Designs
Lack of Homogeneity
Other Post hoc Tests
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Factorial Designs: An Introduction
Factorial Designs
Two-Way Analysis of Variance
Computational Formula with Unequal Cell Size
Post Hoc Procedures
Repeated Measures Design
Repeatability and Reproducibility
Latin Square Designs
Other Designs
Fixed, Random and Mixed Effect Models
Beyond a Two-Way Factorial Design
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Correlation
Graphic Representation of Two Continuous Variables
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient
Correlation Line
Statistical Significance of a Correlation Coefficient
Correlation and Causality
In vivo - In vitro Correlation
Other Types of Bivariate Correlations
Pairwise Correlations Involving More Than Two Variables
Multiple Correlations
Partial Correlations
Nonlinear Correlations
Assessing Independence and Randomness
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Linear Regression
The Regression Line
Coefficient of Determination
ANOVA Table
Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Testing for the Population Slope ([beta])
Confidence Intervals for the Regression Line
Inverse Prediction
Multiple Data at Various Points on the Independent Variable
Assessing Parallelism of the Slopes of Two Samples
Multiple Linear Regression Models
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
z-Tests of Proportions
z-Test of Proportions - One-Sample Case
z-Test of Proportions - Two-Sample Case
Estimating Power and Desired Sample size for Two-Sample z-Test of Proportions
z-Tests for Proportions - Yates' Correction for Continuity
Proportion Testing for More Than Two Levels of a Discrete Independent Variable
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Chi Square Tests
Chi Square Statistic
Chi Square for One Discrete Independent Variable
Chi Square Goodness-of-Fit Test
Chi Square Test of Independence
Yates' Correction for 2 x 2 Contingency Table
Comparison of Chi Square to the Z-Test of Proportions
Fisher's Exact Test
McNemar's Test
Cochran's Q Test
Mantel-Haenszel Test
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Measures of Association
Introduction
Dichotomous Associations
Nominal Associations
Ordinal Associations
Nominal-by-Interval Associations
Reliability Measurements
Summary
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problem
Odds Ratios and Relative Risk Ratios
Probability, Odds, and Risk
Odds Ratio
Relative Risk
Graphic Display for Odds Ratios and Relative Risk Ratios
Mantel-Haenszel Estimate of Relative Risk
Logistic Regression
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Evidence-Based Practice: An Introduction
Sensitivity and Specificity
Two-by-Two Contingency Table
Defining Evidence-Based Practice
Frequentist versus Bayesian Approaches to Probability
Predictive Values
Likelihood Ratios
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Survival Statistics
Censored Survival Data
Life Table Analysis
Survival Curve
Kaplan-Meier Procedure
Visual Comparison of Two Survival Curves
Tests to Compare Two Levels of an Independent Variable
Hazard Ratios
Multiple Regression with Survival Data: Proportional Hazards Regression
Other Measures and Tests of Survival
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Nonparametric Tests
Use of Nonparametric Tests
Ranking of Information
Mann-Whitney U Test
Median Test
Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Test
Sign Test
Kruskal-Wallis Test
Post hoc Comparisons Using Kruskal-Wallis
Friedman Two-Way Analysis of Variance
Spearman Rank-Order Correlation
Theil's Incomplete Method
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit Test
Anderson-Darling Test
Runs Tests
Range Tests
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Statistical Tests for Equivalence
Bioequivalence Testing
Experimental Designs for Bioequivalence Studies
Two-Sample t-Test Example
Power in Bioequivalence Tests
Rules for Bioequivalence
Creating Confidence Intervals
Comparison Using Two One-Sided t-Tests
Clinical Equivalence and Noninferiority
Dissolution Testing
SUPAC-IR Guidance
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Outlier Tests
Regulatory Considerations
Outliers on a Single Continuum
Plotting and the Number of Standard Deviations from the Center
The "Huge" Rule
Grubbs' Test for Outlying Observations
Dixon Q Test
Hampel's Rule
Multiple Outliers
Bivariate Outliers in Correlation and Regression Analysis
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Example Problems
Answers to Problems
Statistical Errors in the Literature
Errors and the Peer Review Process
Problems with Experimental Design
Standard Deviations versus Standard Error of the Mean
Problems with Hypothesis Testing
Problems with Parametric Statistics
Errors with the Chi Square Test of Independence
Summary
References
Suggested Supplemental Readings
Flow Charts for the Selection of Appropriate Tests
Statistical Tables
Random Numbers Table
Normal Standardized Distribution
K-Values for Calculating Tolerance Limits (two-tailed)
K-Values for Calculating Tolerance Limits (one-tailed)
Student t-Distribution (1 - [alpha]/2)
Comparison of One-tailed vs. Two-Tailed t-Distributions
Analysis of Variance F-Distribution
Upper Percentage Points of the F[subscript max] Statistic
Upper Percentage Points of the Cochran C Test for Homogeneity of Variance
Percentage Points of the Standardized Range (q)
Percentage Points of the Dunn Multiple Comparisons
Critical Values of q for the Two-Tailed Dunnett's Test
Critical Values of q for the One-Tailed Dunnett's Test
Values of r at Different Levels of Significance
Chi Square Distribution
Critical Values for Kolmogorov Goodness-of-Fit Test ([alpha] = 0.05)
Critical Values for Smirnov Test Statistic ([alpha] = 0.05)
Critical Values for the Runs Test ([alpha] = 0.05)
Critical Values for T[subscript I] Range Test ([alpha] = 0.05)
Critical Values for the F[subscript R] Test for Dispersion
Values for Use in Grubbs Test for Outlier ([alpha])
Values for Use in Dixon Test for Outlier ([alpha])
Index
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