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Photovoltaic Systems Engineering

ISBN-10: 0849317932

ISBN-13: 9780849317934

Edition: 2nd 2004 (Revised)

Authors: Roger Messenger, Jerry Ventre, Amir Abtahi

List price: $106.95
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Description:

In just the last few years, the increase in worldwide photovoltaic (PV) shipments has grown from 15 to 25 percent per year. Grid-connected applications have surpassed stand-alone applications, system components have realized significant improvements, and major efforts are underway to build a quality control infrastructure for PV systems. Such rapid growth and evolution continues to put engineers skilled in PV systems at a premium.Thoroughly updated, Photovoltaic Systems Engineering, Second Edition offers a practical engineering basis for PV system design. It provides quick exposure to all system building blocks, then examines both the whys and hows of the electrical, mechanical, economic, and aesthetic aspects of PV system design-why certain designs are done in certain ways and how the design process is implemented. Students mastering the contents of this book will have the engineering judgement needed to make intelligent decisions based on a clear understanding of the parameters involved in PV systems.Highlights of the Second Edition:Y Complete updates to each chapter that incorporate currently available system components and recent changes in codes and standardsY Increased emphasis on design trade-offs and the design of grid-connected systemsY New discussions on site evaluation, and battery connectionsY A new section on array mounting system designY A new section on utility interactive residential PV systemsY A new section on curve fitting using ExcelY A new appendix that presents a recommended format for submitting PV design packages for permitting or design review purposesY Examples and exercises replaced or modified to incorporate contemporary components, such as the Linear Current Booster
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Book details

List price: $106.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 7/28/2003
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 480
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.782
Language: English

Background
Introduction
Energy Units
Current World Energy Use Patterns
Exponential Growth
Introduction
Compound Interest
Doubling Time
Accumulation
Resource Lifetime in an Exponential Environment
The Decaying Exponential
Hubbert's Gaussian Model
Net Energy, Btu Economics and the Test for Sustainability
Direct Conversion of Sunlight to Electricity with Photovoltaics
Problems
References
Suggested Reading
The Sun
Introduction
The Solar Spectrum
The Effect of Atmosphere on Sunlight
Insolation Specifics
Introduction
The Orbit and Rotation of the Earth
Tracking the Sun
Measuring Sunlight
Capturing Sunlight
Maximizing Irradiation on the Collector
Shading
Special Orientation Consideration
Problems
References
Suggested Reading
Introduction to PV Systems
Introduction
The PV Cell
The PV Module
The PV Array
Energy Storage
Introduction
The Lead-Acid Storage Battery
The Nickel Cadmium Storage Battery
Other Battery Systems
Hydrogen Storage
The Fuel Cell
Other Storage Options
PV System Loads
PV System Availability
Associated System Electronic Components
Introduction
Charge Controllers
Maximum Power Trackers and Linear Current Boosters
Inverters
Generators
Introduction
Types and Sizes of Generators
Generator Operating Characteristics
Generator Maintenance
Generator Selection
Wiring and Code Compliance
Introduction
The National Electrical Code
IEEE Standard 929-2000
Balance of System Components
Problems
References
Suggested Reading
PV System Examples
Introduction
Example 1: A Simple PV-Powered Fan
The Simplest Configuration: Module and Fan
PV Fan with Battery Backup
Example 2: A PV-Powered Water Pumping System with Linear Current Booster
Determination of System Component Requirements
A Simple Pumping System
Alternative Design Approach for Simple Pumping System
Example 3: A PV-Powered Area Lighting System
Determination of the Lighting Load
An Outdoor Lighting System
Example 4: A PV-Powered Remote Cabin
Example 5: A Hybrid System
Example 6: A Utility Interactive System
Introduction
A Simple Utility Interactive System with No Battery Storage
Example 7: A Cathodic Protection System
Introduction
System Design
Example 8: A Portable Highway Advisory Sign
Introduction
Determination of Available Average Power
Problems
References
Suggested Reading
Cost Considerations
Introduction
Life Cycle Costing
The Time Value of Money
Present Worth Factors and Present Worth
Life Cycle Cost
Annualized Life Cycle Cost
Unit Electrical Cost
Borrowing Money
Introduction
Determination of Annual Payments on Borrowed Money
The Effect of Borrowing on Life Cycle Cost
Externalities
Introduction
Subsidies
Externalities and Photovoltaics
Problems
References
Suggested Reading
Mechanical Considerations
Introduction
Important Properties of Materials
Introduction
Mechanical Properties
Stress and Strain
Strength of Materials
Column Buckling
Thermal Expansion and Contraction
Chemical Corrosion and Ultraviolet Degradation
Properties of Steel
Properties of Aluminum
Establishing Mechanical System Requirements
Mechanical System Design Process
Functional Requirements
Operational Requirements
Constraints
Tradeoffs
Design and Installation Guidelines
Standards and Codes
Building Code Requirements
Forces Acting on Photovoltaic Arrays
Structural Loading Considerations
Dead Loads
Live Loads
Wind Loads
Snow Loads
Other Loads
Array Mounting System Design
Introduction
Objectives in Designing the Array Mounting System
Enhancing Array Performance
Roof-Mounted Arrays
Ground-Mounted Arrays
Aesthetics
Computing Mechanical Loads and Stresses
Introduction
Withdrawal Loads
Tensile Stresses
Buckling
Summary
Problems
References
Suggested Reading
Stand-Alone PV Systems
Introduction
A Critical Need Refrigeration System
Design Specifications
Design Implementation
A PV-Powered Mountain Cabin
Design Specifications
Design Implementation
A Hybrid Powered Residence
Design Specifications
Design Implementation
Seasonal or Periodic Battery Discharge
Battery Connections
Computer Programs
Problems
References
Suggested Reading
Utility Interactive PV Systems
Introduction
Nontechnical Barriers to Utility Interactive PV Systems
Cost of PV Arrays
Cost of Balance of System Components
Standardization of Interconnection Requirements
PV System Installation Considerations
Metering of PV System Output
Technical Considerations for Connecting to the Grid
Introduction
IEEE Standard 929-2000 Issues
National Electrical Code Considerations
Other Issues
Small ([less than sign]10 kW) Utility Interactive PV Systems
Introduction
Array Installation
PCU Selection and Mounting
Other Installation Considerations
A 2.5 kW Residential Rooftop Utility Interactive PV System
A Residential Rooftop System Using AC Modules
A 4800 W Residential Rooftop System with Battery Storage
Medium Utility Interactive PV Systems
Introduction
A 16 kW Commercial Rooftop System
Large Utility Interactive PV Systems
Introduction
A Large Parking Lot PV System
Problems
References
Suggested Reading
Externalities and Photovoltaics
Introduction
Externalities
Environmental Effects of Energy Sources
Introduction
Air Pollution
Water and Soil Pollution
Infrastructure Degradation
Quantifying the Cost of Externalities
Health and Safety as Externalities
Externalities Associated with PV Systems
Environmental Effects of PV System Production
Environmental Effects of PV System Deployment and Operation
Environmental Effects of PV System Decommissioning
Problems
References
The Physics of Photovoltaic Cells
Introduction
Optical Absorption
Introduction
Semiconductor Materials
Generation of EHP by Photo Absorption
Photoconductors
Extrinsic Semiconductors and the pn Junction
Extrinsic Semiconductors
The pn Junction
Maximizing PV Cell Performance
Introduction
Minimizing the Reverse Saturation Current
Optimizing Photocurrent
Minimizing Cell Resistance Losses
Exotic Junctions
Introduction
Graded Junctions
Heterojunctions
Schottky Junctions
Multijunctions
Tunnel Junctions
Problems
References
Present and Proposed PV Cells
Introduction
Silicon PV Cells
Production of Pure Silicon
Single Crystal Silicon Cells
Multicrystalline Silicon Cells
Buried Contact Silicon Cells
Other Thin Silicon Cells
Amorphous Silicon Cells
Gallium Arsenide Cells
Introduction
Production of Pure Cell Components
Fabrication of the Gallium Arsenide Cell
Cell Performance
Copper Indium (Gallium) Diselenide Cells
Introduction
Production of Pure Cell Components
Fabrication of the CIS Cell
Cell Performance
Cadmium Telluride Cells
Introduction
Production of Pure Tellurium
Production of the CdTe Cell
Cell Performance
Emerging Technologies
New Developments in Silicon Technology
CIS-Family-Based Absorbers
Other III-V and II-VI Emerging Technologies
Other Technologies
Summary
Problems
References
Suggested Reading
Average Daily Irradiation for Selected Cities
A Partial Listing of PV-Related Web Sites
Design Review Checklist
Index