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Introduction: Methods, Material, and Moments to Remember | |

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The What and How of Statistics | |

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Before We Begin | |

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A World of Information | |

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Levels of Measurement | |

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Samples and Populations | |

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The Purposes of Statistical Analysis | |

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Descriptive Statistics | |

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Inferential Statistics | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Some Other Things You Should Know | |

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Key Terms | |

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Chapter Problems | |

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Describing Data and Distributions | |

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Before We Begin | |

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Measures of Central Tendency | |

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The Mean | |

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The Median | |

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The Mode | |

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Measures of Variability or Dispersion | |

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The Range | |

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Deviations From the Mean | |

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The Mean Deviation | |

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The Variance | |

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The Standard Deviation | |

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n Versus n-1 | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Some Other Things You Should Know | |

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Key Terms | |

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Chapter Problems | |

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The Shape of Distributions | |

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Before We Begin | |

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The Basic Elements | |

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Beyond the Basics: Comparisons and Conclusions | |

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A Special Curve | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Some Other Things You Should Know | |

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Key Terms | |

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Chapter Problems | |

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The Normal Curve | |

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Before We Begin | |

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Real-World Normal Curves | |

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Into the Theoretical World | |

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The Table of Areas Under the Normal Curve | |

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Finally, an Application | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Some Other Things You Should Know | |

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Key Terms | |

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Chapter Problems | |

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Four Fundamental Concepts | |

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Before We Begin | |

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Fundamental Concept #1: Random Sampling | |

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Fundamental Concept #2: Sampling Error | |

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Fundamental Concept #3: The Sampling Distribution of Sample Means | |

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Fundamental Concept #4: The Central Limit Theorem | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Some Other Things You Should Know | |

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Key Terms | |

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Chapter Problems | |

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Confidence Intervals | |

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Before We Begin | |

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Confidence Interval for the Mean | |

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Confidence Interval for the Mean With ï¿½ Known | |

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An Application | |

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Reviewing Z Values | |

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Z Values and the Width of the Interval | |

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Bringing in the Standard Error of the Mean | |

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The Relevance of the Central Limit Theorem and the Standard Error | |

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Confidence and Interval Width | |

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A Brief Recap | |

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Confidence Interval for the Mean With ï¿½ Unknown | |

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Estimating the Standard Error of the Mean | |

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The Family of t Distributions | |

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The Table for the Family of t Distributions | |

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An Application | |

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A Final Comment About the Interpretation of a Confidence Interval for the Mean | |

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A Final Comment About Z Versus t | |

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Confidence Intervals for Proportions | |

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An Application | |

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Margin of Error | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Some Other Things You Should Know | |

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Key Terms | |

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Chapter Problems | |

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Hypothesis Testing With a Single Sample Mean | |

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Before We Begin | |

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Setting the Stage | |

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A Hypothesis as a Statement of Your Expectations: The Case of the Null Hypothesis | |

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Single Sample Test With ï¿½ Known | |

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Refining the Null and Phrasing It the Right Way | |

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The Logic of the Test | |

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Applying the Test | |

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Levels of Significance, Critical Values, and the Critical Region | |

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But What If… | |

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But What If We're Wrong? | |

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Single Sample Test With ï¿½ Unknown | |

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Applying the Test | |

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Some Variations on a Theme | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Some Other Things You Should Know | |

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Key Terms | |

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Chapter Problems | |

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Hypothesis Testing With Two Samples (Mean Difference and Difference Between Means) | |

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Before We Begin | |

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Related Samples | |

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The Logic of the Test | |

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The Null Hypothesis | |

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Combining the Logic and the Null | |

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The Estimate of the Standard Error of the Mean Difference | |

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Applying the Test | |

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Interpreting the Results | |

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Some Additional Examples | |

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Independent Samples | |

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The Logic of the Test | |

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The Null Hypothesis | |

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Combining the Logic and the Null | |

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The Estimate of the Standard Error of the Difference of Means | |

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Applying the Test | |

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Interpreting the Results | |

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Some Additional Examples | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Some Other Things You Should Know | |

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Key Terms | |

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Chapter Problems | |

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Beyond the Null Hypothesis | |

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Before We Begin | |

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Research or Alternative Hypotheses | |

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One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Test Scenarios | |

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Testing a Non-directional Research Hypothesis | |

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Testing a Directional Research Hypothesis | |

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Power and Effect | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Some Other Things You Should Know | |

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Key Terms | |

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Chapter Problems | |

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Analysis of Variance | |

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Before We Begin | |

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The Logic of ANOVA | |

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From Curves to Data Distributions | |

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The Different Means | |

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From Different Means to Different Types of Variation | |

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The Null Hypothesis | |

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The Application | |

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Calculating the Within-Groups Sum of Squares (SS<sub>W</sub>) | |

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Calculating the Between-Groups Sum of Squares (SS<sub>B</sub>) | |

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From Sums of Squares to Estimates of Variance | |

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Calculating the F Ratio | |

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The Interpretation | |

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Interpretation of the F Ratio | |

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Post Hoc Testing | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Some Other Things You Should Know | |

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Key Terms | |

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Chapter Problems | |

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The Chi-Square Test | |

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Before We Begin | |

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The Chi-Square Test of Independence | |

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The Logic of the Test | |

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A Focus on the Departure From Chance | |

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The Null Hypothesis | |

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The Application | |

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The Formula | |

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The Calculation | |

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Conclusion and Interpretation | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Some Other Things You Should Know | |

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Key Terms | |

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Chapter Problems | |

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Correlation and Regression | |

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Before We Begin | |

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Scatter Plots | |

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Linear Associations: Direction and Strength | |

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Other Types of Association | |

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Correlation Analysis | |

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Two Variables: X and Y | |

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The Logic of Correlation | |

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The Formula for Pearson's r | |

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Application | |

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Interpretation | |

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An Additional Step: Testing the Null | |

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Conclusion and Interpretation | |

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Regression Analysis | |

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An Application | |

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The Logic of Prediction and the Line of Best Fit | |

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The Regression Equation | |

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The Standard Error of the Estimate | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Some Other Things You Should Know | |

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Key Terms | |

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Chapter Problems | |

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Table of Areas Under the Normal Curve (Distribution of Z) | |

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Family of t Distributions (Two-Tailed Test) | |

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Family of t Distributions (One-Tailed Test) | |

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Distribution of F (.05 Level of Significance) | |

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Distribution of F (.01 Level of Significance) | |

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Distribution of Q (.05 Level of Significance) | |

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Distribution of Q (.01 Level of Significance) | |

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Critical Values for Chi-Square (X<sup>2</sup>) | |

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Critical Values of r (Correlation Coefficient) | |

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Data Sets and Computer-Based Data Analysis | |

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It Usually Starts with Rows and Columns | |

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Good News; Words of Caution; It's Up to You | |

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Some of the More Common Formulas Used in the Text | |

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Answers to Chapter Problems | |

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Glossary | |

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References | |

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Index | |