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American Government

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ISBN-10: 0822053004

ISBN-13: 9780822053002

Edition: 1997

Authors: Cliffs Notes Staff, Abraham Hoffman, Paul Soifer

List price: $9.95
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When it comes to pinpointing the stuff you really need to know, nobody does it better than CliffsNotes. This fast, effective tutorial helps you master core American government concepts - from the First Continental Congress and the Bill of Rights to modern political parties and economic policy - and get the best possible grade. At CliffsNotes, we're dedicated to helping you do your best, no matter how challenging the subject. Our authors are veteran teachers and talented writers who know how to cut to the chase - and zero in on the essential information you need to succeed.
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Book details

List price: $9.95
Copyright year: 1997
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/28/1997
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 101
Size: 5.26" wide x 8.28" long x 0.47" tall
Weight: 0.682
Language: English

D. STEPHEN VOSS, a specialist in voting behavior, is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Kentucky. He received his doctorate from Harvard University.ABRAHAM HOFFMAN has taught AP U.S. History since 1982 in the Los Angeles Unified School District and has served countless terms as an AP reader for the U.S. History exam.

PAUL SOIFER, Ph.D., is chair of the History Department at Yeshiva University High School in Los Angeles, where he teaches both AP U.S. History and AP U.S. Government.

The Constitution
The Continental Congress
The Declaration of Independence
State constitutions
The Articles of Confederation
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
Calls to strengthen the national government
The Constitutional Convention
The Virginia Plan
The New Jersey Plan
The Great Compromise
Decisions on slavery
Compromise over the presidency
Key Concepts in the Constitution
Republican form of government
The organization of government
The federal system
Summary of the Constitution
The Debate over Ratification
The Antifederalists
The Federalists
The Amendment Process and Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights
Subsequent amendments to the Constitution
Concepts of Federalism
The constitutional framework
Dual federalism
Cooperative federalism
Defining Federal-State Relations
The role of the courts
The role of Congress
The role of funding policies
Recent Trends in Federalism
Richard Nixon and the New Federalism
Federalism under Reagan
Ongoing mandates
Where Americans stand
The Powers of Congress
Specific powers
Implied powers
Limitations on the powers of Congress
The Organization of Congress
Congressional districts
Members of Congress
Leadership in the House
Leadership in the Senate
The work of congressional committees
How a Bill Becomes a Law
A bill is introduced
A bill in committee
A bill before the full House and Senate
Factors influencing voting decisions
The conference committee and action by the president
The President
The Powers of the President
Treaty power
Appointment power
Legislative powers
Other specific powers
Inherent powers
Delegation of powers
The Functions of the President
Commander in chief
Chief of state
Chief executive
Moral leader
Party leader
Organization of the Executive Branch
The Executive Office of the President
The cabinet
The Vice President and Presidential Succession
The selection of the vice president
The role of the vice president
The process of presidential succession
The Judiciary
The State Court System
Superior courts
State appellate courts
State supreme courts
The election of state judges
The Federal Court System
District courts
Courts of appeal
Legislative and special courts
The Supreme Court
The appointment of federal judges
The Supreme Court in Operation
The appointment of Supreme Court justices
A case comes to the Supreme Court
A case before the Court
A decision is reached
The rationale for decisions
Implementing Supreme Court decisions
The Bureaucracy
Characteristics of a Bureaucracy
Hierarchical organization
Formal rules
The Growth of the Federal Bureaucracy
The nature of the civil service
The rise of the welfare state
National security bureaucracy
Controlling the Size of Bureaucracy
Appointment power and presidential persuasion
Privatization and deregulation
The power of the budget
Sunset laws
Executive branch reviews of the federal bureaucracy
The Functions of the Federal Bureaucracy
The Structure of the Federal Bureaucracy
Cabinet departments
Independent agencies
Government corporations
Public Opinion
How Public Opinion Is Measured
Polling techniques
Avoiding bias
Political Socialization
Peer groups
Mass media
Social Background and Political Values
Income and education
Race and ethnicity
Political Ideology
How Public Opinion Is Formed
Personal interest
Effective leadership
The Mass Media
The Evolution of the Mass Media
Newspapers and magazines
Radio and television
The Structure of the Mass Media and Government Regulation
Concentration in the mass media
Hard news vs. entertainment
Regulation of radio and television
The Functions of the Mass Media
Public opinion
Political agenda
Link between the government and the people
Government watchdog
The Mass Media and Political Coverage
How reporters get the news
The media and presidential elections
Political Parties
The Functions of Political Parties
Representing groups of interests
Simplifying choices
Making policy
The Development of Political Parties
The Federalists and the Democratic Republicans
Jacksonian Democrats and the Whigs
Democrats and Republicans
The New Deal coalition and Republican resurgence
Third Parties in American Politics
Splits within the Republican and Democratic parties
Farmer-labor parties
Ideological and one-issue parties
Why third parties fail
The Structure of Political Parties
Local party organization
State party organization
National party organization
The national convention
The Strengths and Weaknesses of Political Parties
Voting and Elections
The Expansion of Suffrage
Universal manhood suffrage
Expansion by amendment
Obstacles to Voting
Poll taxes
Literacy tests
Good-character tests
Grandfather clause
Residency requirements
Other restrictions to voting
Voter Turnout
The process of registering
The process of voting
Who votes and who doesn't
Voting Choices
Voting the party line
The personality element
Issue voting
Alternatives to voting
Getting Nominated and Campaigning for Office
Primary elections
Nominating a president
Political campaigns
Electing Candidates to Office
Electing a president
The coattails effect
Congressional elections
Interest Groups
Types of Interest Groups
Economic interest groups
Public interest groups
Government interest groups
Religious interest groups
Civil rights interest groups
Ideological interest groups
Single-issue interest groups
Functions of Interest Groups
Tactics of Interest Groups
Grassroots campaigns
Political action committees
Regulation of Interest Groups
Controls over lobbying
Controlling political action committees
Civil Liberties
Perspective on Civil Liberties
The Bill of Rights
The impact of the Fourteenth Amendment
The First Amendment: Freedom of Religion
"Wall of separation" vs. government accommodation
Free exercise of religion
The First Amendment: Freedom of Speech
Political speech
Public speech
Symbolic speech
The First Amendment: Freedom of the Press
Prior restraint
Subsequent punishment
Obscene materials
The Rights of Defendants
The Fourth Amendment
The Fifth Amendment
The Sixth Amendment
Implied Rights
The right to privacy
The abortion issue
The right to die
Civil Rights
Slavery and Civil Rights
The Missouri Compromise
The Compromise of 1850
The Dred Scott decision
The Emancipation Proclamation and the abolition of slavery
Segregation in the United States
Jim Crow laws
Separate but equal doctrine
Breaking Down Segregation
Executive actions
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Issues in school desegregation
The Civil Rights Movement
Civil disobedience
Civil rights legislation
Racial violence
Civil Rights for Minorities and Women
Hispanic Americans
Native Americans
Disabled Americans
Affirmative Action
Reverse discrimination
Challenges to affirmative action
Public Policy
The Policymaking Process
Agenda building
Formulation and adoption
Evaluation and termination
Politics and Policymaking
Fragmented policies
Politics in Congress
Iron triangles and issue networks
Policymaking in Action
Regulatory policy
Criticism of regulation and deregulation
Social welfare policy
Social Security
The "War on Poverty"
Recent trends and challenges
Economic Policy
The Goals of Economic Policy
Stable prices
Full employment
Economic growth
Theories of Economic Policy
Laissez-faire economics
Keynesian economic theory
Supply-side economics
The Federal Budget
Preparing the budget
Balancing the budget
Taxation and Spending
Types of taxes
Tax-reform efforts
International Economic Policy
Foreign Policy
Background of American Foreign Policy
The Spanish-American War and its aftermath
World War I and World War II
The Cold War and Vietnam
Detente and the end of the Cold War
The new world order
Making Foreign Policy
The president and foreign policy
Congress and foreign policy
The mass media and foreign policy
The Institutions of Foreign Policy
Department of State
Department of Defense
National Security Council
Central Intelligence Agency
Issues in Foreign Policy
National security issues
International economic policy
Environmental issues
CQR Review
CQR Resource Center