Rangeland Ecology and Management

ISBN-10: 0813337992

ISBN-13: 9780813337999

Edition: N/A

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Description:

This revised and updated second edition of Rangeland Ecology and Management offers a new description of the world's rangelands. Several chapters on the effects of defoliation of land by animals have been updated. Heady and Child explain changes in plant succession, state-and-transition models, stability, and monitoring of range condition. The authors place emphasis on environmental concerns, repair of damaged land, riparian zone management, multiple uses, livestock grazing, and animal management. Revised vegetational management highlights wildlife habitat, seeding native species, use of fire as a management tool, and rehabilitation after wild fires.
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Book details

Publisher: Westview Press
Publication date: 11/11/1999
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 524
Size: 6.00" wide x 8.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.782
Language: English

Preface
Grazing Ecology
Rangeland Conservation
Rangeland Defined
Range Management Defined
The Rangeland Ecosystem
The Grazing Factors
Literature Cited
Defoliation
Coevolution of Plants and Animals
Definitions
Determining Effects of Defoliation
Effects of Defoliation on Plant Morphology
Literature Cited
Physiological Effects of Defoliation
The Cycle of Nonstructural Carbohydrates
TNC Production and Plant Growth
Stimulation by Clipping
Defoliation and Competition
Defoliation and Overgrazing
Other Nutritive Components
Yield and Vigor Effects of Defoliation During Growth
Defoliation Effects After Plant Maturity
Evaluation of Defoliation Practices
Literature Cited
Palatability, Preference, and Selective Defoliation
Expressions of Selectivity
Methods of Studying Selectivity
Palatability Factors
Preference Factors
Vegetational Responses to Selective Grazing
Literature Cited
Physical Effects of Grazing Animals
Animal Movements
Direct Effects on Plants
Cryptogamic Soil Crusts
Effects on Soil
Desirable Trampling Effects
Effects of Soil Compaction on Vegetation
Evaluation of Physical Effects
Literature Cited
Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycling
Energy Capture
Energy Flow
Management by Energy Flow
Nutrient Cycling
The Nitrogen Cycle
The Sulfur Cycle
Cycles of Phosphorus and Potassium
Management Based upon Mineral Cycling
Literature Cited
Redistribution of Minerals by Plants and Animals
Redistribution by Plants
Redistribution by Large Herbivores
Redistribution by Other Animals
Mineral Build-up Due to Livestock Feeding
Management Based on Mineral Distributions
Literature Cited
Distribution of Plants by Animals
Active Transport
Ingestion and Spread of Fruits
Passive Transport
Management Implications
Effectiveness of Plant Dispersal by Animals
Literature Cited
Fire as an Environmental Factor
Prehuman Sources of Fire
The Evolution of Tolerance to Fire
Fire-Type and Fire Species
Adaptations of Plant Species to Burning
Effects of Fire on Soil
Effects of Fire on Animals
Effects of Fire on Plants
Vegetational Responses to Fire
Fire as a Regenerative Stimulant
Literature Cited
Rangeland Synecology
Seven Groups of Vegetational Change
Vegetational Change and Stability
Range Condition and Trend
New Directions in Range Condition Assessment
Livestock as a Tool to Manage Range Condition
Literature Cited
Grazing Management
Numbers of Animals
Concepts and Definitions
Production per Hectare Versus per Animal
Literature Cited
Utilization of Forage
Utilization Defined
Determination of Forage Utilization
Adjustment of Animal Numbers to Forage Supply
Literature Cited
Animal Distribution
Factors Influencing Animal Distribution
Consequences of Faulty Animal Distribution
Practices to Lessen Animal Concentrations
Literature Cited
Mixed Species Grazing
Definition
Attitudes Toward Animals
Mixed Game Animals
Introduction of Exotic Range Animals
Exchange Ratios Among Animal Species
Forage and Animal Combinations
Cycles of Animals and Habitats
Literature Cited
Mixed Species Management
Objectives of Habitat Management
Harvestable Numbers
Animal Capture and Handling
Game Cropping
Game Ranching
Game and Livestock Ranching
Management of Mixed Species
Literature Cited
Seasonal Management
Seasonal Suitability
Range Readiness
Yearly Cycles
Managing Within the Cycles
Needed Information
Manipulation of Grazing Period
Literature Cited
Grazing Plans
Objectives of Seasonal Grazing Plans
History of Grazing Plans
Terminology of Seasonal Grazing Treatments
Types of Grazing Plans
Operation of Grazing Plans Within the Annual Forage Cycles
Literature Cited
Responses to Seasonal Grazing Plans
Vegetational Responses
Livestock Responses
Soil Responses to Grazing Plans
Determination of Responses
Other Benefits from Grazing Plans
Wildlife Responses
Positive Responses to Rotation Schedules
Precautions in Using Rotation Schedules
Literature Cited
Vegetation Management
Modification of Vegetation
The Problem of Undesirable Plants
Kinds of Undesirable Rangeland Plants
Demands for a Clean Environment
Ecological Integrity of Rangeland Management
The Vegetation
Ecological Tactics for Vegetation Management
Toward Flexibility for the Future
Literature Cited
Mechanical Control of Rangeland Plants
Objectives
Specific Sites and Problems
The Method, Time, and Intensity of Application
Methods of Mechanical Plant Control
Debris Arrangements
Soil Disturbances
Plant Kill
Herbage Increase After Brush Removal
Costs of Mechanical Brush Control
Appearance of the Altered Landscape
Literature Cited
Chemical Control of Rangeland Plants
Approval of Herbicides
Major Chemicals Used as Rangeland Herbicides
Application
Hazards
Responses of Rangeland Plant Communities to Herbicides
Literature Cited
Prescribed Fire in Rangeland Management
Fire Characteristics
Fire Behavior
Responses to Burning During Certain Seasons
Temporary or Permanent Effects?
Objectives in the Use of Fire
Prescribed Burning
Reluctance to Use Prescribed Fire
Literature Cited
Biological Control
Practices
Risk
Successes and Problems
Grazing Animals
Developing Plant Resistance
The Future of Biological Control
Literature Cited
Seeding of Rangelands
Deciding to Seed
The Seeding Operation
Regional Seeding Practices
Literature Cited
Rangeland Fertilization
Widespread Fertilizer Problems
Responses to Fertilization
Is Rangeland Fertilization Profitable?
Management of Fertilized Areas
Literature Cited
Soil and Water Conservation
Rangeland Soil Conditions
The Erosion Process
Recognition of Erosion
Erosion Control with Cover
Mechanical Structures to Control Water Erosion
Sand Control
Windbreaks and Shelterbelts
Water Harvesting Practices
Literature Cited
Managing Rangeland Complexity
Reclamation of Damaged Rangeland
Overlapping Terms
Goals
Reclamation in the Ecosystem Context
The Reclamation Process on Mine Spoil
Rangeland Roads
Literature Cited
Riparian Areas and Pollution: Best Management Practices
Definition of Riparian
Riparian Conditions
Grazing Management of Riparian Zones
Mechanical Structures to Improve Riparian Habitats
Successful Riparian Management
Pollution
Best Management Practices (BMP)
Literature Cited
Multiple-Use
Changes in Land Uses
Multiple-Use Principles and Characteristics
Multiple-Use Practices and Management
Selling a Multiple-Use Management Program
Experimental Stewardship Program
Coordinated Resource Management Planning (CRMP)
Summary
Literature Cited
Planning for Rangeland Management
Planning
The Operating Ecosystem
Selecting the Parts of a Range Improvement Program
Intensity of the Practice
Selecting Rangeland Products
Summary
Literature Cited
Decision Support Systems
Multiprocess Models
Combining Rangeland Resource Models
Precautions in Applying Models and Simulation
Accumulation of Data-Sets
Issues and Values of Modeling
Literature Cited
Scientific and Common Names of Plants
Scientific and Common Names of Animals
Index
About the Book and Authors
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