An ordained priest who lives in Solentiname, a community that he founded, and a member of the Nicaraguan cabinet, Ernesto Cardenal is Latin America's best known exponent of what might be called the literature of the theology of liberation. His poetry is the expression of tension between his faith and a strongly rooted sense of reality and the need for drastic change. Influenced heavily by Thomas Merton, by his residence in the Trappist community of Gethsemane, Kentucky, by English and American poetry, Christianity, and the fact of social injustice, Cardenal consciously writes antirhetorical and often didactic poetry. Frequently, he uses other sources: newspapers, Native American texts, and so on, just as the masses at Solentiname use nontraditional sources as subjects for discussion. Zero Hour (1980) details the existence of tyranny in America; the Psalms (1981) are a rewriting of the biblical Psalms of David for a modern world. The Gospel in Solentiname (1982) is a collection of dialogues or commentaries on the Gospels. Cardenal served as minister of culture in the government organized after the 1979 ouster of Anastasio Somoza in Nicaragua.
Born in France, Thomas Merton was the son of an American artist and poet and her New Zealander husband, a painter. Merton lost both parents before he had finished high school, and his younger brother was killed in World War II. Something of the ephemeral character of human endeavor marked all his works, deepening the pathos of his writings and drawing him close to Eastern, especially Buddhist, forms of monasticism. After an initial education in the United States, France, and England, he completed his undergraduate degree at Columbia University. His parents, nominally friends, had given him little religious guidance, and in 1938, he converted to Roman Catholicism. The following year he received an M.A. from Columbia University and in 1941, he entered Gethsemani Abbey in Kentucky, where he remained until a short time before his death. His working life was spent as a Trappist monk. At Gethsemani, he wrote his famous autobiography, "The Seven Storey Mountain" (1948); there he labored and prayed through the days and years of a constant regimen that began with daily prayer at 2:00 a.m. As his contemplative life developed, he still maintained contact with the outside world, his many books and articles increasing steadily as the years went by. Reading them, it is hard to think of him as only a "guilty bystander," to use the title of one of his many collections of essays. He was vehement in his opposition to the Vietnam War, to the nuclear arms race, to racial oppression. Having received permission to leave his monastery, he went on a journey to confer with mystics of the Hindu and Buddhist traditions. He was accidentally electrocuted in a hotel in Bangkok, Thailand, on December 10, 1968.