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Pharmaceutical Calculations

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ISBN-10: 0781762650

ISBN-13: 9780781762656

Edition: 12th 2006 (Revised)

Authors: Howard C. Ansel, Mitchell J. Stoklosa

List price: $72.95
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Book details

List price: $72.95
Edition: 12th
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Publication date: 12/30/2005
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 464
Size: 7.25" wide x 10.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.134
Language: English

Introduction
Scope of Pharmaceutical Calculations
Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Calculations
Numbers and Numerals
Kinds of Numbers
Arabic Numerals
Roman Numerals
Common and Decimal Fractions
Percent
Exponential Notation
Ratio, Proportion, and Variation
Dimensional Analysis
Significant Figures
Estimation
International System of Units
Guidelines for the Correct Use of the SI
Special Considerations of the SI in Pharmacy
Measure of Length
Measure of Volume
Measure of Weight
Fundamental Computations
Relation of the SI to Other Systems of Measurement
Pharmaceutical Measurement
Measurement of Volume
Measurement of Weight
Aliquot Method of Weighing and Measuring
Least Weighable Quantity Method of Weighing
Percentage of Error
Interpretation of Prescriptions and Medication Orders
Range of Prescription and Medication Order Calculations
Prescription and Medication Order Accuracy
Use of Abbreviations and Symbols
Medication Scheduling and Patient Compliance
Density, Specific Gravity, and Specific Volume
Density
Specific Gravity
Density Versus Specific Gravity
Calculating the Specific Gravity of Liquids
Use of Specific Gravity in Calculations of Weight and Volume
Special Considerations of Specific Gravity
Calculating Specific Volume
Percentage, Ratio Strength, and Other Expressions of Concentration
Percentage
Percentage Preparations
Special Considerations in Percentage Calculations
Percentage Weight-in-Volume
Percentage Volume-in-Volume
Percentage Weight-in-Weight
Use of Percent in Compendial Standards
Ratio Strength
Simple Conversions of Concentration to "mg/mL"
Milligrams Percent
Parts Per Million (PPM) and Parts Per Billion (PPB)
Calculation of Doses: General Considerations
Dose Definitions
Routes of Drug/Dose Administration and Dosage Forms
Dose Measurement
General Dose Calculations
Dosing Options
Calculation of Doses: Patient Parameters
Pediatric Patients
Geriatric Patients
Dosage Forms Applicable to Pediatric and Geriatric Patients
Drug Dosage Based on Age
Drug Dosage Based on Body Weight
Drug Dosage Based on Body Surface Area
Special Dosing Considerations in Cancer Chemotherapy
Some Calculations Involving "Units," "[mu]g/mg," and Other Measures of Potency
Selected Clinical Calculations
Heparin-Dosing Calculations
Dosage Calculations Based on Creatinine Clearance
Clinical Laboratory Tests
Isotonic and Buffer Solutions
Special Clinical Considerations of Tonicity
Physical/Chemical Considerations in the Preparation of Isotonic Solutions
Buffers and Buffer Solutions
Electrolyte Solutions: Milliequivalents, Millimoles, and Milliosmoles
Milliequivalents
Millimoles
Osmolarity
Clinical Considerations of Water and Electrolyte Balance
Intravenous Infusions, Parenteral Admixtures, and Rate-of-Flow Calculations
Intravenous Infusions
Intravenous Push (IVP) Drug Administration
Special Considerations in Pediatric IV Infusion Delivery
Intravenous Admixtures
Rate of Flow of Intravenous Fluids
Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition, Body Mass Index, and the Food Nutrition Label
Enteral Nutrition
Parenteral Nutrition
Nutritional Requirements
Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Calculations
Body Mass Index (BMI)
The Nutrition Label
Dilution, Concentration, and Alligation
Special Considerations of Dilution and Concentration in Pharmaceutical Compounding
Relationship Between Strength and Total Quantity
Dilution and Concentration of Liquids
Stock Solutions
Dilution of Alcohol
Dilution of Acids
Dilution and Concentration of Solids and Semisolids
Triturations
Alligation
Specific Gravity of Mixtures
Reducing and Enlarging Formulas
Formulas That Specify Proportional Parts
Selected Calculations in Contemporary Compounding
General Considerations in Compounding Practice
Constitution of Dry Powders
Use of Prefabricated Dosage Forms in Compounding
Special Calculations: Capsule Filling and Suppository Molding
Compounding Specialized Formulas
Selected Calculations Involving Veterinary Pharmaceuticals
Special Considerations in Compounding Veterinary Pharmaceuticals
Selected Calculations Associated with Plant Extractives
Extracts, Fluidextracts, and Tinctures
Botanic Dietary Supplements
Calculation of Active Drug Moiety
Atomic and Molecular Weights
Chemically Equivalent Quantities
Active Drug Moiety Equivalence
Selected Calculations Involving Radiopharmaceuticals
Radioisotopes
Radioactivity
Units of Radioactivity
Selected Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetic Calculations
Drug Availability From Dosage Forms and Delivery Systems
Introductory Concepts and Calculations Involved in Pharmacokinetics
Selected Pharmacoeconomic Calculations
Pharmacoeconomic Methods of Analysis
Cost Considerations of Drug and Drug Product Selection
Drug Acquisition Costs
Markup
Prescription Pricing
Pharmacoeconomic Aspect of Proof Strength
Common Systems of Measurement and Intersystem Conversion
Apothecaries' Fluid Measure
Apothecaries' Measure of Weight
Avoirdupois Measure of Weight
Fundamental Operations and Calculations
Relationship Between Avoirdupois and Apothecaries' Weights
Intersystem Conversion
Conversion of Linear Quantities
Conversion of Liquid Quantities
Conversion of Weights
Conversion of Temperatures
Graphical Methods
Linear Relationships on Rectangular Graph Paper
Linear Relationships on Semilogarithmic Graph Paper
Other Methods of Data Presentation: Tables and Charts
Basic Statistical Concepts
The Array
The Frequency Distribution
Averages
Measures of Variation
Aspects of Probability
Glossary of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems
Review Problems
Answers to Review Problems
Index
Atomic Weights