Book of Alternative Photographic Processes

ISBN-10: 0766820777

ISBN-13: 9780766820777

Edition: 2002

Authors: Christopher James

List price: $181.95
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---- James brings the art of hand-coated and alternative photography to a new level?The Book of Alternative Photographic Processes will become the new standard text for alternative hand-coated photography. -- quoted from Dick Sullivan, Founder and Co-Owner, Bostick & Sullivan. *** Photographic artists and students will welcome this full-color, comprehensive technical resource that explores every aspect of alternative photography. Written in a highly accessible style, each of the book?s chapters introduces the history of a technique, presents an overview of the relevant alternative or non-silver photographic process, reviews its chemistry, and provides practical guidance in how to make it work. Traditional and digital contact negative production are featured- plus an array of processes including cyanotype, Van Dyke, Kallitype, gum bichromate, platinum/palladium, Ziatype, Ambrotype, and hand-applied emulsions. *** ---- The Book of Alternative Photographic Processes is both landmark and guide. It?s where we?ve been, where we are now, and where we?re going. Photography?s classic methods and materials are explained, explored, extended, and reinvented, while marching well into the age of inkjet and digital. -- quoted from Judy Seigel, Founder and Editor, The World Journal of Post Factory Photography.
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Book details

List price: $181.95
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Delmar Cengage Learning
Publication date: 6/21/2001
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 400
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.398
Language: English

Christopher James is an internationally known artist and photographer whose photographs, paintings, and alternative process printmaking have been exhibited in galleries and museums in this country and abroad. His work has been published and shown extensively, including exhibitions in The Museum of Modern Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The George Eastman House, and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. The first two editions of his book, The Book of Alternative Photographic Processes have received international critical acclaim and are universally recognized by artists, curators, historians, and educators as the definitive texts in the genre of alternative process photography and photographically integrated media and culture. Christopher, after 13 years at Harvard University, is presently University Professor and Director of the MFA in Photography program at The College of Art and Design - Lesley University. He is also a painter, graphic designer, and a professional scuba diver. His web site is

The Pinhole
Overview and Expectations
A Little History: Conception and Connections
The Conception
How a Daguerreotype Is Made
A Little Science
Pinhole Construction
Testing the Camera
Finding the Correct Exposure
Making Pictures
Pinhole Recommendations
The Negative: Traditional and Alternative Options
Overview and Expectations
A Little History
A Vision from 1760
An Appropriate Moment to Explain Things
Negative Production Options
Commercial Labs
The Copy Machine
The Desktop Printer and Film Recorders
Acrylic Films from Printed Sources
Polaroid Type 55 Positive/Negative Film
A Quick Nod to Conventional Films
More Negative Options: The Cliche-Verre
Single Stage Negative-to-Negative Duplicating Films
A Few Multistage Duplicating Films
Exposure and Development: Average Negative Densities
Dave Soemarko's Lc-1 and Lc-1B Low Contrast Developer Formulas for Lith Film
The Digital Options
Overview and Expectations
A Little History: The Digesting Duck to the Present
My View of the Present State of the Digital Arts
A Caveat
The Digital Negative: A Layman's Explanation
CMYK Separation Negatives: the Bare Essentials
CMYK Separations in Photoshop: The Speedy, Non-Fussy Version
CMYK Separations in Adobe Photoshop: The Longer Version (Photoshop 5.0 and 5.5)
CMYK Negative Separations in Adobe Illustrator
Photogenetics: An Imaging Alternative
The Plastic Camera
Overview and Expectations
A Little History
Toy Camera Philosophy
The Six Plastic Virtues
Plastic Camera Hints and Tips
The Salted Paper Process
Overview and Expectations
A Little History
Chemistry and Formulas
Coating Salted Paper
Printing Salted Paper
Prewash/Salt Wash
Toning Formulas for the Salted Paper Process
Fixing the Salted Paper Print
Final Wash
Contrast Control
The Cyanotype Process
Overview and Expectations
A Little History
How Cyanotype Works
The Chemistry: Chemicals and Sensitizer Formula
The Negative
Paper and Fabric Surfaces
A Few Words About the Sun
Exposing the Cyanotype
Development: Water or Acid
Washing and Oxidization
Clearing Your Highlights
Toning the Cyanotype
Cyanotype Variations: Fabrics and the New Cyanotype
Overview and Expectations
Materials You Will Need
Making the Image: Chemistry
Coating the Fabric
Oxidizer: "Intensification"
Postprinting Washing Care
The New Cyanotype
A Little History
The Five Shortcomings of the Traditional Cyanotype Process, According to Dr. Ware
Chemical Solutions for the First Three Problems
The Sensitizer
Preparation of Sensitizer
Coating Techniques
Drying the Coating
Exposure and Development
The Kallitypes: Van Dyke, B-V-D, and Kallitype
Overview and Expectations
A Little History
The Van Dyke Process
Van Dyke Sensitizing Chemistry
The Paper
The Negative
Coating the Paper
Processing the Image
Toning the Van Dyke Image
The Blue-Van-Dyke (B-V-D) Process
The Kallitype Process
The Kallitype Sensitizer
Coating the Paper
Exposing the Print
Developing the Print
Development Method #1
Development Methods #2
A Toning Process for Kallitype
Controlling Contrast with Potassium Dichromate
Fixing the Print
Final Wash
The Brownprint Process
The Brownprint Sensitizer
Fixing the Print
Final Wash
The Platinum/Palladium Process
Overview and Expectations
A Little History
The Process Explained
Supplies and Materials
The Negative
Papers and Sizing
The Chemistry
Two Pt/Pd Developer Formulas
The Clearing Baths
Formula for EDTA Clearing Bath
The Sensitizer Formula
Preparing the Formula and Coating the Paper
Best Advice
Developing the Platinum/Palladium Image
Prewashing and Clearing
Some Points to Consider: Trouble-shooting
Cyanotype, Gum, and Van Dyke with Pt/Pd
The Ziatype Process
Overview and Expectations
A Little History
A Little Chemistry
How It Works
The Working Process
Additional Considerations
End Thoughts
The Anthotype Process
Overview and Expectations
A Little History
Anthotype Materials
The Working Process
Paper: History, Preparation, Shrinking, Sizing, and Hardening
Overview and Expectations
A Few Words About Paper and Its History
Sizing and Hardening
Gelatin Sizing and Hardening Processes
Gelatin Sizing
Materials You Will Need
Gelatin Sizing: Step 1
Gelatin Hardening: Step 2
Formalin Hardening Bath and Process: A Step 2 Option
Glyoxal Hardening Bath and Process: A Step 2 Alternative
Glyoxal-Gelatin Single-Coating Option
Arrowroot Sizing
Gesso-Acrylic Medium Sizing
Gloss Polyurethane Sizing
Gum Arabic-Dichromate Sizing
The Gum Bichromate Process
Overview and Expectations
A Little History
How Gum Bichromate Works
A Few Words Before We Begin
The Gum Negative
The Ammonium/Potassium Dichromate Sensitizer
Gum Arabic
A Traditional Gum Bichromate Sensitizing Formula (Ammonium Dichromate)
Another Sensitizer Formula (Potassium Dichromate)
An Alternative Sensitizing Formula: "The 5-10-10"
Sensitizing the Paper
A Few Words Regarding Conventional Gum Wisdom and Staining
Exposing the Negative
Printing a Single Color Gum with a Single Negative
Development: Clearing
Other Miscellaneous Trouble-Shooting Notes and Suggestions
Dichromate Options: 3-D Gum, Alternative Surfaces for Gum, the Dusting-On Process, the Ferro-Tannic Process, and the Ferro-Gallate Process
Overview and Expectations
3-D Gum Bichromate Process
How 3-D Works
The Negatives
The Process
Gum Bichromate on Alternative Surfaces
The Basic Premise
Coating, Exposure, and Development
The Dusting-On Process
A Little History
Contemporary Dusting-On Process
Working on Glass
The Traditional Dusting-On Formula
Materials Needed for Dusting-On Process
The Process for Paper
Hot and Humid Image Development
Dusting-On Glass: Transfer Option
The Ferro-Tannic and Ferro-Gallic Processes
A Little History
The Chemistry
The Albumen Process
Overview and Expectations
A Little History
How the Albumen Process Works
The Traditional Raw Egg Method
The Powdered Albumen Method
The Instant Gratification Method
Coating the Paper with the Albumen Solution
Hardening Options If You Double Coat
Sensitizing the Paper
Exposure: Contrast Control and What to Look For
Silver Albumenate and Highlight Yellowing
Processing: First Bath
Optional Toning
Fixing the Toned Print
Final Wash
POP: Printing-Out Process
Overview and Expectations
A Little History
POP Overview
A Traditional POP Emulsion
Formulas and Process for Precoated POP Paper
Gold-Thiocyanate Toner
Gold-Alkaline Toners (Gray Silver-Sepia to Pink)
Sodium Bicarbonate Formula
Replenishment for Gold Toners
Platinum Toner: Traditional Formula
POP Platinum Toner (Neutral Black-Sepia)
Gold-Platinum POP Split Toner
Gold-Platinum-Selenium POP Split Toner
Fixing the POP Print
Final Wash
Hand-Applied Emulsions: Liquid Emulsions, Photo-Etching, Paint, Photo-resists, Contemporary Tintypes, Wet Collodion, and Ambrotype Processes
Overview and Expectations
Liquid Emulsions
The Working Process for Hand-Applied Emulsions
Emulsions on Glass, Ceramic, and Similar Surfaces
Emulsions on Metal
Contemporary Tintype Process
A Little History
The Dry Plate Process
The Wet Collodion and Ambrotype Process
A Little History
The Ambrotype Process
Salted Collodion Emulsion
Prefix Wash: Developer Removal
Fixing the Plate
Mounting and Presentation of a Wet Collodion Positive
The Mordancage Process
Overview and Expectations
Depouillment (Gelatin Removal)
Image Transfer Processes: Color Laser, Lazertran System, Polaroid Transfer and Emulsion Lift Processes, Ink Jet Water Transfer
Overview and Expectations
How a Color Laser Copier Works
At the Copy Store
Materials You Will Need
Solvent Transfer Technique
The Varneytype Transfer Process
Water/Dry Mount Process
Transfers to Fabric
The Lazertran Transfer Process
Lazertran Transfer Papers for Artists
Fixing a Lazertran Transfer to Glass, Ceramic, Perspex, and Metal
Fixing a Lazertran Transfer to Paper, Wood, Stone, and Plastic with Turpentine
Lazertran Silk Transfer
Lazertran on Heavy Fabrics
Lazertran Etch: Printmaking Press Transfers
Polaroid Transfers and Emulsion Lifts
What Is Polaroid Film and How Does It Work?
Materials Needed for These Processes
The Wet Transfer Process
The Dry Transfer Process
Polaroid Emulsion Lifts
The Process
Exposing Type 59 4" x 5" Film in an Enlarger
Ink-Jet Water Transfer Process
Safety Considerations and Data for Chemicals Used in This Book
Excellent Sources for Chemical, MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) and Lab Safety
A Few Simple Chemistry Definitions
Chemistry and Safety
Chemical Abstract Service Registry (CAS)
Small Volume Conversion Table
Dry measure
Liquid measure
A Simple Ultraviolet Exposure Unit
Materials Needed
How to Make It
A Working Inventory Check Sheet: For an Alternative Process Curriculum, Workshop, or Studio
A Modest List of Resources: Chemicals, Lab Gear, and Kits
Lab materials and art supplies
Films and Photographic Supplies
Negative Scans, Digital Resources, Books, Postcards, and Portfolios
Alternative Processes on the Internet
An Alternative Process Working Space
Selected Bibliography: Contemporary and Traditional Alternative Processes
Early and Historical
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