Preface | p. vii |

Introduction to the CLAST | p. 1 |

The CLAST | p. 1 |

Preparing for the CLAST | p. 4 |

Some Proven Test-Taking Strategies | p. 6 |

Multiple-Choice Testing Strategies | p. 7 |

Reading | p. 9 |

Passing the Reading Test | p. 9 |

Literal Comprehension | p. 11 |

Recognize the Main Idea (A1) | p. 11 |

Identify Supporting Details (A2) | p. 12 |

Determine the Meaning of Words in Context (A3) | p. 13 |

Critical Comprehension | p. 22 |

Recognize the Author's Purpose (B1) | p. 22 |

Distinguish Between Fact and Opinion (B3) | p. 23 |

Detect Bias (B4) | p. 24 |

Recognize the Author's Tone (B5) | p. 26 |

Identify the Author's Overall Organizational Pattern (B2) | p. 27 |

Recognize Relationships Within Sentences (B6) | p. 29 |

Recognize Relationships Between Sentences (B7) | p. 30 |

Recognize Valid Arguments (B8) | p. 31 |

Draw Logical Inferences and Conclusions (B9) | p. 32 |

Reading Practice Explained Answers | p. 33 |

Steps for Passing the Reading Test | p. 35 |

The Six Steps | p. 35 |

Applying the Steps | p. 38 |

English Language Skills | p. 49 |

Passing the English Language Skills Test | p. 49 |

Review Quiz | p. 50 |

Answer Checklist | p. 52 |

Use Words to Convey the Denotative and Connotative Meanings Required by Context (B1 a) | p. 54 |

Use Proper Pronoun Case Forms (B4 c) | p. 56 |

Use Standard Verb Forms (B4 a) | p. 58 |

Verbs | p. 58 |

Avoid Inappropriate Shifts in Tense (B4 f) | p. 61 |

Maintain Agreement Between Pronoun and Antecedent (B4 b2) | p. 62 |

Pronouns | p. 62 |

Maintain Agreement Between Subject and Verb (B4 b1) | p. 65 |

Subject-Verb Agreement | p. 65 |

Use Adjectives and Adverbs Correctly (B4 e) | p. 67 |

Adjectives and Adverbs | p. 67 |

Make Logical Comparisons (B4 g) | p. 69 |

Place Modifiers Correctly (B2 a) | p. 71 |

Use Standard Practice for Capitalization and Punctuation (B5 b) | p. 73 |

Capitalization | p. 73 |

Punctuation | p. 75 |

Avoid Comma Splices, Fused Sentences, and Fragments (B2 d) | p. 78 |

Sentence Fragments | p. 78 |

Comma Splices and Fused Sentences | p. 79 |

Use Parallel Expressions for Parallel Ideas (B2 c) | p. 81 |

Parallelism | p. 81 |

Avoid Wordiness (B1 c) | p. 82 |

Diction | p. 82 |

Use Standard Practice for Spelling (B5 a) | p. 84 |

Coordinate and Subordinate Sentence Elements According to Their Relative Importance (B2 b) | p. 86 |

English Language Skills Practice Explained Answers | p. 88 |

Strategies for Passing the English Language Skills Test | p. 91 |

Essay | p. 92 |

Passing the Essay Test | p. 93 |

Steps for Writing a Passing Essay | p. 93 |

Applying the Steps | p. 94 |

Scoring Objectives Used by CLAST Essay Raters | p. 96 |

Essay Scoring Scale | p. 97 |

Sample Essays | p. 98 |

Essay 1 | p. 98 |

Essay 2 | p. 98 |

Essay 3 | p. 99 |

Essay 4 | p. 100 |

Handwritten Essay | p. 101 |

Mathematics | p. 102 |

Passing the Mathematics Test | p. 103 |

Mathematics Review Quiz | p. 104 |

Answer Checklist | p. 110 |

Arithmetic | p. 112 |

Add and Subtract Positive and Negative Fractions (I A1 a) | p. 112 |

Multiply and Divide Positive and Negative Fractions (I A1 b) | p. 115 |

Add, Subtract, Multiply, and Divide Positive and Negative Decimals (I A2) | p. 117 |

Identify Equivalent Decimals, Percents, and Fractions (II A3) | p. 119 |

Calculate Percent Increase and Percent Decrease (I A3) | p. 121 |

Solve for One Variable of the Equation: a% of b is c (I A4) | p. 122 |

Recognize the Meaning of Exponents (II A1) | p. 124 |

Identify the Place Value of a Digit in a Decimal Numeral and Identify the Expanded Notation for a Decimal Numeral (II A2) | p. 125 |

Use [greater than sign], [less than sign], and = to Compare Real Numbers (II A4) | p. 126 |

Estimate the Sum, Average, or Product of Numbers in a Word Problem (II A5) | p. 129 |

Find Missing Numbers in a Pattern (III A1) | p. 130 |

Solve Real-World Word Problems Not Involving Variables or Percent (IV A1) | p. 132 |

Solve Real-World Word Problems That Involve Percent (IV A2) | p. 133 |

Solve Problems That Involve the Structure and Logic of Arithmetic (IV A3) | p. 134 |

Geometry and Measurement | p. 136 |

Round Measurements to the Nearest Given Unit (I B1) | p. 136 |

Calculate Distance, Area, and Volume (I B2) | p. 139 |

Identify Relationships Between Angle Measures (II B1) | p. 143 |

Classify Simple Plane Figures According to Their Properties (II B2) | p. 147 |

Recognize Similar Triangles and Their Properties (II B3) | p. 149 |

Identify Appropriate Units of Measurement for Geometric Objects (II B4) | p. 151 |

Infer Formulas for Measuring Geometric Figures (III B1) | p. 152 |

Select Formulas for Computing Measures of Geometric Figures (III B2) | p. 153 |

Solve Real-World Word Problems About Measures of Geometric Figures (IV B1) | p. 155 |

Solve Real-World Word Problems Involving the Pythagorean Theorem (IV B2) | p. 156 |

Algebra | p. 158 |

Add, Subtract, Multiply, and Divide Real Numbers (I C1) | p. 158 |

Use the Correct Order-of-Operations to Compute (I C2) | p. 160 |

Use Scientific Notation in Calculations of Very Large or Very Small Numbers (I C3) | p. 160 |

Solve Linear Equations and Inequalities (I C4) | p. 162 |

Use Nongeometric Formulas (I C5) | p. 165 |

Find Values of a Function (I C6) | p. 166 |

Factor a Quadratic Expression (I C7) | p. 167 |

Find the Roots of a Quadratic Equation (I C8) | p. 168 |

Solve a System of Two Linear Equations in Two Unknowns (I C9) | p. 170 |

Use Properties of Operations (II C1) | p. 173 |

Determine If a Number Is a Solution to an Equation or Inequality (II C2) | p. 174 |

Recognize Statements and Conditions of Proportionality and Variation (II C3) | p. 175 |

Match Regions of the Coordinate Plane with Equations and Inequalities (II C4) | p. 176 |

Identify Equivalent Equations and Inequalities (III C2) | p. 179 |

Solve Nongeometric Word Problems Involving Variables (IV C1) | p. 181 |

Solve Problems That Involve the Structure and Logic of Algebra (IV C2) | p. 182 |

Statistics and Probability | p. 184 |

Identify Information Contained in Bar, Line, and Circle Graphs (I D1) | p. 184 |

Determine the Mean, Median, and Mode of a Set of Numbers (I D2) | p. 186 |

Use the Fundamental Counting Principle (I D3) | p. 187 |

Recognize Relationships Among the Mean, Median, and Mode (II D1) | p. 189 |

Choose the Most Appropriate Procedure for Selecting an Unbiased Sample (II D2) | p. 190 |

Identify the Probability of an Outcome (II D3) | p. 192 |

Infer Relations and Make Predictions from Statistical Data (III D1) | p. 193 |

Interpret Real-World Data from Frequency Tables (IV D1) | p. 196 |

Solve Real-World Word Problems Involving Probability (IV D2) | p. 198 |

Logic | p. 200 |

Deduce Facts of Set Inclusion or Set Noninclusion from a Diagram (I E1) | p. 200 |

Identify Negations of Simple and Compound Statements (II E1) | p. 201 |

Determine the Equivalence or Nonequivalence of Statements (II E2) | p. 203 |

Draw Logical Conclusions from Data (II E3) | p. 204 |

Recognize Invalid Arguments with True Conclusions (II E4) | p. 205 |

Recognize Valid Reasoning Patterns in Everyday Language (III E1) | p. 207 |

Select Rules Used to Transform Statements (III E2) | p. 209 |

Draw Logical Conclusions When Facts Warrant (IV E1) | p. 210 |

Mathematics Practice Explained Answers | p. 212 |

Strategies for Passing the Mathematics Test | p. 224 |

Practice Test 1 | p. 228 |

Essay | p. 229 |

English Language Skills/Reading | p. 232 |

Mathematics | p. 249 |

Practice Test 1--Answers and Explanations | p. 260 |

Practice Test 2 | p. 266 |

Essay | p. 267 |

English Language Skills/Reading | p. 270 |

Mathematics | p. 288 |

Practice Test 2--Answers and Explanations | p. 298 |

Computer-Adaptive CLAST (CAT-CLAST) | p. 302 |

Introduction | p. 302 |

The CAT-CLAST | p. 303 |

Strategies for Passing the CAT-CLAST | p. 304 |

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