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Comparative and International Criminal Justice Systems Policing, Judiciary and Corrections

ISBN-10: 0750696885

ISBN-13: 9780750696883

Edition: 1996

Authors: Obi N. Ebbe

List price: $46.95
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The study of diverse criminal justice systems and their agencies of social control has taken on an essential role in establishing which deterrents and correction methods are most effective. Comparative and International Criminal Justice Systems, Second Edition explores in depth the policing, judicial and penological models of various countries and compares and contrasts the effective methods with those proven less than adequate. The first edition covered eight countries and one region while the second edition covers twelve countries and a region. The dynamics of criminal justice in Ireland (Europe), Israel (Middle East), Hong Kong (Asia), and Argentina (South America) have been added because their evolutionary histories teaches a lot about the nature of law and justice. For ease of instruction, this edition is structured topically as opposed to by continents. Contains current and up-to-date information Presents contributions from reputable scholars from four different continents Specifically covers police, judiciary and corrections
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Book details

List price: $46.95
Copyright year: 1996
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 285
Size: 6.14" wide x 9.21" long x 0.76" tall
Weight: 1.496
Language: English

The Purpose of Comparative and International Criminal Justice Systemsp. 1
Introduction: The Purpose of Comparative and International Criminal Justice Systemsp. 3
Introductionp. 3
Varied Political History of Nationsp. 4
International Character of the Modern Crime Scenep. 4
Varied Social Control Mechanisms and Learning from Others' Experiencesp. 5
Philosophical and Utilitarian Ideals That Propel the Criminal Justice Goals of Various Nationsp. 5
Provision of Bases for Research and Comparisonsp. 5
Acquaintance with the Nature and Dynamics of the Criminal Law of Nationsp. 6
Provision of a Source for Governmental Policy Modifications in Criminal Procedures, Law Enforcement, and Correctionsp. 7
Summaryp. 7
Notesp. 8
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 8
Overviews of Criminal Justice Systems and Policyp. 9
Criminal Justice System in the United States: General Overviewp. 11
Brief Historyp. 11
Legal Systemp. 12
System of Governmentp. 13
Crimep. 13
Classification of Crimep. 13
Classification of Illegal Possession of Narcotic Drugsp. 14
Crime Statisticsp. 15
Crime Regionsp. 16
Victimsp. 16
Policep. 17
Administrationp. 17
Resourcesp. 18
Technologyp. 19
Training and Qualificationsp. 19
Discretionp. 20
Accountabilityp. 20
Prosecutorial and Judicial Processp. 21
Rights of the Accusedp. 21
Criminal Proceduresp. 21
Pre-trial Incarcerationp. 22
Judicial Systemp. 23
Administrationp. 23
Special Courtsp. 23
Judgesp. 23
Penalties and Sentencingp. 23
Sentencing Processp. 23
Types of Penaltiesp. 24
Prisonp. 24
Descriptionp. 24
Administrationp. 25
Conditionsp. 25
Discussionp. 26
Notesp. 28
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 28
Introductionp. 29
The Criminal Justice System of Irelandp. 29
The Irish System of Governmentp. 31
A Brief History of the Irish Criminal Justice Systemp. 32
The Legal System in Irelandp. 35
The Nature of Crime in Irelandp. 36
The Police in Irelandp. 39
Administration and Organizationp. 39
Resources, Technology, and Training of Personnelp. 40
Garda Siochana and Community Relationsp. 40
The Courts, the Judiciary, and the Legal Professionp. 42
The Courtsp. 42
Administration and Organizationp. 42
Special Courtsp. 43
The Judiciary and the Legal Professionp. 44
Prosecutorial and Judicial Processp. 45
The Legal Aspects of Offender Prosecutionp. 45
Rights of the Accusedp. 46
Criminal Procedurep. 47
Penaltiesp. 48
The Prisonsp. 50
Description, Administration, and Organizationp. 50
Discussionp. 52
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 53
The Criminal Justice System in Israelp. 55
Introductionp. 55
The Israeli Legal Systemp. 56
The Laws of Israelp. 56
Crime and Deviancep. 56
Types of Statisticsp. 56
Drugsp. 57
Organized Crimep. 57
Juvenile Delinquentsp. 58
Victims and Issues in Victimologyp. 59
Policep. 60
General Overviewp. 60
Community-Oriented Policingp. 62
Image and Accountabilityp. 63
Technology and Budgetp. 64
Prosecutorial and Judicial Processp. 64
Pretrial and Preventive Detentionp. 66
The Judicial Systemp. 67
Magistrate's (or Peace) Courtsp. 67
District Courtsp. 67
The Supreme Courtp. 67
Penalties and Sentencingp. 68
Rules of Evidencep. 69
Sentencingp. 69
The Prison Systemp. 70
Administration and Organizationp. 70
Prisons and Jailsp. 71
The Prison Populationp. 71
Miscellaneous Servicesp. 75
Extradition Procedures and Treatiesp. 75
Conclusionsp. 76
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 78
The Criminal Justice: System in Argentinap. 79
Introduction and Brief Historyp. 79
Early Historyp. 79
Contemporary Historyp. 80
The Legal Systemp. 80
System of Governmentp. 81
How Laws Are Made or Revokedp. 82
The Crime Problem in Argentinap. 82
Policep. 83
The Role of the Policep. 84
The Judiciaryp. 85
The Supreme Courtp. 85
Federal District Courtsp. 85
Provincial Courtsp. 86
Prosecutorial and Judicial Processp. 86
Penalties and Sentencingp. 87
Types of Penalties in Argentine Penal Codep. 88
The Prison Systemp. 88
Discussionp. 89
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 89
The Criminal Justice System of Sierra Leonep. 91
Introductionp. 91
Brief Historyp. 91
Crime Profilep. 92
Organization and Functioning of the Criminal Justice Systemp. 98
The Policep. 98
The Criminal Courtsp. 100
Local Courtsp. 100
Magistrates' Courtsp. 101
The High Courtp. 102
Court of Appealp. 104
Supreme Courtp. 104
The Prison Systemp. 105
Juvenile Justicep. 106
Conclusionp. 108
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 110
An Overview of the Criminal Justice System in Hong Kongp. 113
Introduction and Brief Historyp. 113
Legal Systemp. 113
Crimes and Victimsp. 114
Policep. 115
Administration and Organizationp. 115
Independent Commission Against Corruptionp. 116
The Judiciaryp. 117
The Courtsp. 117
Appointment and Dismissal of Judgesp. 118
Independence of the Judiciaryp. 118
Prosecution and Criminal Procedurep. 119
Prosecutionp. 119
Criminal Procedurep. 120
Arrest and Pretrial Detentionp. 120
Superintendents' Discretion Schemep. 120
The Decision to Prosecutep. 121
Rights of the Accusedp. 121
Sentencing Options and Procedurep. 121
Rehabilitation Programsp. 122
Probation Ordersp. 122
Detention Ordersp. 122
Community Service Ordersp. 122
Reformatory Schools, Probation Homes, and Hostelsp. 123
Community Support Service Schemesp. 123
Detention Centerp. 123
Training Centerp. 124
Drug Addiction Treatment Centerp. 124
Prisonsp. 124
Discussion and Conclusionp. 124
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 126
The Criminal Justice of Chinap. 129
Introductionp. 129
Chinese Legal Traditionp. 129
Formal Justice Systemp. 131
Court Systemp. 132
Procuratoratep. 134
Public Security Organsp. 134
State Security Organsp. 135
Lawyersp. 136
Correctionsp. 136
Informal Justice Systemp. 138
Notesp. 141
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 141
Comparative Policingp. 143
Separate But Equal: Nondiscriminatory Policy and Practice in British and American Policingp. 145
Introductionp. 145
The Structure of Policingp. 145
Access to Work: Legislation and Backgroundp. 146
England and Walesp. 146
United Statesp. 147
Practices Prohibited Under American Equal Opportunity Legislationp. 147
Comparisonsp. 147
Access to Policingp. 148
Minority Ethnic Groupsp. 148
Sexp. 149
Sexual Orientationp. 152
Changing Behavior and Modifying Attitudesp. 153
Conclusionp. 154
Notesp. 155
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 155
Policing and Public Disorder in the United Kingdomp. 157
Introductionp. 157
The Dilemma of Police Servicep. 158
Police and the Communityp. 159
U.S. and U.K. Innovations in Quality of Servicep. 162
The Mid State, Tourist, and Big Cities Departmentsp. 163
The Differences between the United States and the United Kingdom in Community Policingp. 166
Issuesp. 168
Eventsp. 168
Communityp. 168
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 170
The Police System in the People's Republic of Chinap. 171
Introductionp. 171
Historical Developmentp. 171
Organizational Structurep. 172
Types of Police Forcesp. 175
Functions of the Police in the Judicial Processp. 177
Functions of the Police in the Social Arenap. 178
Dynamics of the Systemp. 179
Conclusionp. 181
Notesp. 182
Discussion and Revision Questionsp. 182
Comparative Judicial Systemsp. 183
The Judiciary and Criminal Procedure in Nigeriap. 185
Introductionp. 185
Pre-English Legal Systemp. 185
The Emergence of the English Legal Systemp. 185
The Criminal Codep. 186
The Penal Codep. 187
Customary Lawp. 187
The Crime Problemp. 188
Judicial Systemp. 189
Administration and Organizationp. 189
The Supreme Courtp. 190
Federal High Court/Federal Court of Appealp. 191
State Courtsp. 192
The Court of Appeal (Western States)p. 192
The Courts of Resolution (Northern States)p. 192
The Sharia Court of Appeal (Northern States)p. 192
The High Courtsp. 192
Magistrates' Courtsp. 193
Customary Courtsp. 193
Special Courtsp. 193
Special Criminal Offenses Tribunalsp. 193
Juvenile Courtp. 194
Criminal Proceduresp. 194
Rights of the Accusedp. 194
Arrest and Investigationp. 195
Dismissal or Dischargep. 196
Right of Appeal in Criminal Casesp. 196
Appeals to Magistrate's Courtp. 199
The High Court in Criminal Appealsp. 199
The Appellate Jurisdiction of the Nigerian Supreme Courtp. 200
Penalties and Sentencingp. 200
Sentencing Processp. 200
Types of Penaltiesp. 200
Discussionp. 201
Conclusionp. 202
Notesp. 202
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 202
Introductionp. 205
The Court System in the People's Republic of China with a Case Study of a Criminal Trialp. 205
Overall Structurep. 205
Major Proceduresp. 208
Pretrialp. 208
Right to Defense Counselp. 208
Trialp. 209
Penaltyp. 210
Appealp. 210
Second Instancep. 211
Major Principlesp. 211
Mutual Restraintp. 211
Independencep. 211
Equalityp. 211
Languagep. 211
Combining Punishment with Leniencyp. 212
Supervision by the Procuratoratep. 212
Some Factors and Issues Affecting the Court Systemp. 212
Function of the Lawp. 212
The Party Linep. 212
Presumption of Innocencep. 213
A Case Studyp. 213
Chargep. 214
Defendant's Backgroundp. 214
The Circumstances of the Casep. 214
The Trialp. 214
Jurisdictionp. 214
Physical Setting of the Courtp. 214
Componentsp. 215
Judiciaryp. 215
The Procuratoratep. 215
Defensep. 215
Summary of the Proceduresp. 215
Dispositionp. 215
Sentencep. 216
Social Issuesp. 216
Points of Comparisonp. 216
Conclusionp. 217
Notesp. 218
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 218
Comparative Correctionsp. 219
Guided Change in Japan: the Correctional Association Prison Industrial Cooperative (CAPIC) and Prison Industryp. 221
Introductionp. 221
A Window of Opportunity for Prison Industriesp. 221
Factory System and the Prisonp. 222
Industrial Model in Japanp. 223
Roots in Japanese Historyp. 224
The Key Importance of Subcontractingp. 225
Oil Shock and Crisis for Prison Laborp. 226
Negotiations Culminating in CAPICp. 228
Taking Advantage of an Opportunityp. 229
The Establishment and Aim of CAPICp. 230
CAPIC's Place in Prison Industryp. 230
Other Contributions of CAPICp. 232
Opposing Outcomes: U.S. and Japanp. 233
Notesp. 234
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 235
Japanese Version of Community Corrections: Volunteer Probation Officers and Hostelsp. 237
Introductionp. 237
Twin Sources of Community Correctionsp. 239
Contemporary VPO and Hostel Programsp. 241
Tokugawa Controls and the Rural Villagep. 242
Twin Sources of the Meiji Restorationp. 244
Community in Twentieth-Century Japanp. 244
VPOs and Community Participationp. 246
Assessing the Volunteer Systemp. 247
Conclusionp. 248
Notesp. 249
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 249
Development of Penal Policy in Former British West Africa: Exploring the Colonial Dimensionp. 251
Introductionp. 251
Crime, Deviance, and Social Control Prior to Colonizationp. 252
Adoption of Incarceration and De-Africanization of Social Controlp. 254
Industrial Production and the Development of Prisonsp. 257
Impact of Major Penal Philosophies on Corrections in West Africap. 259
Shifts in Penal Policy in Postindependence West Africap. 262
Summary and Conclusionp. 263
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 265
Treatment of Offenders in Denmark and Brazilp. 267
Denmark: An Overviewp. 267
Philosophy of the Social Welfare Statep. 268
Criminal Justice Policy in Denmarkp. 268
Organization of Prisons and Penal Sanctionsp. 268
Treatment of Inmatesp. 270
Brazil: An Overviewp. 270
A Legacy of Authoritarianism and Violencep. 271
Criminal Justice Policy in Brazilp. 271
Penal Conditionsp. 272
Treatment of Inmatesp. 273
Brazilian Penal Policy in Contrast with Danish Penal Methodsp. 273
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 274
Synthesis of the Criminal Justice Systemsp. 275
The Unique and Comparative Features of the Criminal Justice Systems--Policing, Judiciary, and Corrections: a Synthesisp. 277
Introductionp. 277
Political Experiences and the Laws of Nationsp. 277
The Judiciary and Criminal Procedures of Nationsp. 279
Crime Ratep. 282
Policingp. 283
Correctional Perspectivesp. 285
Conclusionp. 288
Discussion and Review Questionsp. 288
Glossaryp. 291
Bibliographyp. 297
Indexp. 319
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