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Human Factors in Lighting

ISBN-10: 0748409505

ISBN-13: 9780748409501

Edition: 2nd 2003 (Revised)

Authors: Peter R. Boyce

List price: $96.95
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Description:

Peter Boyce presents a review of the interaction of people & lighting, including specialist lighting applications, such as photobiology. He looks at new opportunities for improving the quality of life at work & in the home that have been made possible by recent technological developments.
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Book details

List price: $96.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 4/24/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 602
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.244
Language: English

Preface
Acknowledgments
Fundamentals
Light
Introduction
Light and radiation
The CIE standard observers
Photometric quantities
Some limitations
Colorimetric quantities
The CIE colorimetry system
Color order systems
Application metrics
Sources of light
Natural light
Artificial light--flame sources
Artificial light sources--electric/general illumination
Light source characteristics
Artificial light sources--electric-signs and -signals
Control of light distribution
Control of light output
Summary
The visual system
Introduction
The structure of the visual system
The visual field
Eye movements
Optics of the eye
The structure of the retina
The functioning of the retina
The central visual pathways
Color vision
Conclusions
Continuous adjustments of the visual system
Adaptation
Photopic, scotopic, and mesopic vision
Accommodation
Capabilities of the visual system
Threshold measures
Factors determining visual threshold
Spatial thresholds
Temporal thresholds
Color thresholds
Interactions
Perception through the visual system
The perceptual constancies
Modes of appearance
Summary
The circadian system
Introduction
The structure of the circadian system
The retina
The suprachiasmatic nuclei
The pineal gland
Characteristics of the circadian system
Models of the circadian system
Effects of light exposure on the circadian system
The amount of light
The consequences of trying to work in circadian night
Caveats
Summary
Generalities
Lighting and work
Why lighting matters
An overview
Methods of studying light and work
Field studies of light and work
Simulated work
Analytical methods
The visibility approach
The relative visual performance model
Some limitations
Prolonged work
Fatigue
Mood changes
Conclusions
Summary
Lighting and visual discomfort
Introduction
The characteristics of visual discomfort
General causes of visual discomfort
Specific causes of visual discomfort
Uniformity
Glare
Veiling reflections
Shadows
Flicker
Discomfort, performance, and behavior
Visual discomfort and lighting quality
Summary
Lighting and the perception of spaces and objects
Introduction
Simple perceptions
Lightness
Brightness
Visual clarity?
Color appearance
Higher-order perceptions
The correlation method
Multi-dimensional methods
The perception of objects
Summary
Specifics
Lighting for offices
Introduction
Illuminance
Light sources for office lighting
Daylight
Electric light sources
Lighting systems
Daylight delivery systems
Electric lighting delivery systems
Lighting controls
Window lighting controls
Manual electric lighting controls
Automatic electric lighting controls
Summary
Lighting for industry
Introduction
The problems facing lighting in industry
General lighting
Localized and task lighting
Visual inspection
Special situations
Summary
Escape lighting
Introduction
Escape lighting in context
Information on the presence of a hazard
Information on the recommended course of action
Information on carrying out the recommended course of action
Operating conditions
Exit signs
Escape route lighting
Ceiling- and wall-mounted luminaires
Path-marking
Special situations
Smoke
People with color defective vision
People with low vision
People with limited mobility
Escape lighting in practice
Summary
Lighting for driving
Introduction
The value of light
Vehicle lighting
Signal and marking lighting
Forward lighting
Road lighting
Tunnel lighting
Signals, signs, and messages
Rain, fog, and snow
Summary
Lighting and crime
Introduction
Lighting and the incidence of crime
The reason why
Essential characteristics of lighting
Illuminance
Illuminance uniformity
Glare
Light source color
Design approaches
Special situations
Fenced areas
Gatehouses
Unfenced areas
Facade lighting
Closed circuit television
Generalization and value
Summary
Lighting for the elderly
Introduction
Optical changes with age
Neural changes with age
Low vision
The aging of the circadian system
The effects of age on visual performance
What can be done to offset the effects of age?
Changing the optics
Changing the task
Changing the lighting
Eliminating the task
Summary
Light and health
Introduction
Light as radiation
Tissue damage
Threshold limit values
Hazardous light sources
Practical considerations
Special groups
Phototherapy
Aging effects
Light operating through the visual system
Eyestrain
Migraine
Autism
Light operating through the circadian system
Sleep
Seasonally affective disorder
Alzheimer's disease
Light as a purifier
Summary
Codes and consequences
Introduction
Laws, regulations, codes, guides, and practices
Trends in lighting recommendations
Consequences
Lighting and energy
Lighting and chemical pollution
Light pollution
Summary
The way ahead
Introduction
The limitations of the past
Approaches and measures
Areas of application
Why bother?
Summary
References
Index