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Biomechanics of the Upper Limbs Mechanics, Modelling and Musculoskeletal Injuries

ISBN-10: 0748409262

ISBN-13: 9780748409266

Edition: 2004

Authors: Andris Freivalds

List price: $125.95
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Description:

Interest in upper extremity muskoskeletal disorders has grown as the service sector has claimed a larger share of the workforce. This text combines the basic biomechanics with the more practical bioengineering issues.
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Book details

List price: $125.95
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 6/29/2004
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 624
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 2.2
Language: English

Introduction to Biomechanics
What Is Biomechanics?
Basic Concepts
Coordinate Systems
Force Vector Algebra
Static Equilibrium
Anthropometry and Center of Mass Determination
Friction
Dynamics
Questions
Problems
References
Structure of the Musculoskeletal System
Gross Overview of Movements
The Skeletal System
Mechanical Properties of Bone
Soft Connective Tissue
Joints
Articular Joints
Joint Lubrication
Wear and Osteoarthritis
Cartilaginous Joints
Questions
Problems
References
Neuromuscular Physiology and Motor Control
Introduction to Musculature
Structure of Muscle
Basic Cell Physiology
The Nervous System
The Excitation-Contraction Sequence
Motor Units
Types of Motor Units
Motor Unit Twitch
Basic Muscle Properties (Mechanics)
Active Length-Tension Relationship
Passive Length-Tension Relationship
Velocity-Tension Relationship
Active State Properties
Developments Leading to Hill's Muscle Model
Fatigue and Endurance
Energy, Metabolism, and Heat Production
Receptors
Muscle Spindles
Golgi Tendon Organs
Other Receptors
Questions
Problems
References
Modeling of Muscle Mechanics
Laplace Transforms and Transfer Functions
Partial Fraction Expansion
Transfer Functions
Viscoelastic Theory
Hill's Muscle Models
Active Muscle Response
Tension Buildup
Stress Relaxation
Creep
Time Constant
Frequency Analysis
Generalized Approach
Magnitude and Phase Angle in the Frequency Domain
Magnitude and Phase Angle in the Laplace Domain
Frequency Analysis of Passive Muscle
Hatze's Multielement Model
Applications of the Hatze Muscle Model
Control Theory and Motor Control
Basic Concepts
First-Order System
Second-Order System
Human Information Processing and Control of Movements
Root Locus Approach to Muscle Modeling
The Root Locus Method
Muscle Spindle Model
Time Delays
Velocity Control
Reflex Stiffness
Questions
Problems
References
Models of the Upper Limbs
Anatomy of the Hand and Wrist
Bones of the Hand and Wrist
Joints of the Hand
Muscle of the Forearm, Wrist, and Hand
Flexor Digitorum Profundus and Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
Flexor Tendon Sheath Pulley Systems
Wrist Mechanics
Select Finger Anthropometry Data
Static Tendon-Pulley Models
Dynamic Tendon-Pulley Models
Complex Tendon Models
Reduction Methods
Optimization Methods
Combined Approaches
A Two-Dimensional Hand Model
Direct Measurement Validation Studies
Critical Evaluation of Modeling Approaches
Questions
Problems
References
Musculoskeletal Disorders and Risk Factors
The Extent of the Problem
Common MSDs and Their Etiology
Tendon Disorders
Muscle Disorders
Nerve Disorders
Vascular Disorders
Bursa Disorders
Bone and Cartilage Disorders
Medical Diagnosis and Treatment of MSDs
Epidemiologic Approach to MSDs
Introduction to Epidemiology
Statistical analyses
Multivariate Modeling
Quality of Epidemiological Research
Scientific Research and Evidence for Occupational Risk Factors
Neck Disorders
Shoulder Disorders
Elbow Disorders
Hand/Wrist--Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Hand/Wrist--Tendinitis
Hand/Arm--Vibration Syndrome
Scientific Research and Evidence for Psychosocial Risk Factors
Iatrogenesis--A Contrarian View
Questions
Problems
References
Instrumentation
Introduction
Wrist and Finger Motion Measurement
Types of Measurement Devices
Calibration Methods
Static Measurements--Range of Motion
Dynamic Measurements--Angular Velocity and Acceleration
Pressure and Force Distribution Measurements
Early Pressure Devices
Force Sensing Electronic Components
Integrated Touch Glove System
Nerve Conduction Measurements
Basic Concepts
Nerve Stimulation and Recording
Response Measures
Limitations
Electromyography
EMG Instrumentation
EMG Analysis
Questions
Problems
References
Job and Worksite Analysis
The Need for Job Analysis
Reliability and Validity of Assessment Tools
Basic Concepts
Reliability of Assessments
Reliability of Analysts
Accuracy and Precision
Applications
Initial Identification of Musculoskeletal Injury Problems
Initial Steps
Surveys and Subjective Ratings
Limitations of Surveys
Gross Posture and Task Analyses
Early Recording of Postures
OWAS
Posture Targeting
RULA
Video Posture Analyses
Task Analyses
Quantitative Upper Limb WRMSD Risk Assessment Tools
Checklists
Strain Index
OCRA
Recent Developments
Data-Driven Upper Limb WRMSD Risk Index
Questions
Problems
References
Hand Tools
Introduction
Historical Development of Tools
Tools and Musculoskeletal Injuries
General Tool Principles
General Biomechanical Considerations of Tools
Anatomy and Types of Grip
The Biomechanics of a Power Grip
The Biomechanics of a Precision Grip
Measurement of Skin Coefficient of Friction
Grip Force Coordination
Static Muscle Loading
Awkward Wrist Position
Tissue Compression
Repetitive Finger Action
Handles for Single-Handled Tools
Handle Length
Handle Diameter
Handle Shape
Texture and Materials
Angulation of Handle
Handles for Two-Handled Tools
Grip Span
Gender
Handedness
Other Tool Considerations
Posture
Weight
Gloves
Vibration
Rhythm
Miscellaneous
Agricultural and Forestry Tools
Shovels and Spades
Axes and Hammers
Saws
Other Agricultural Tools
Industrial Tools
Pliers
Screwdrivers
Knives
Meat Hooks
Power Tools
Railroad Tools
Mining Tools
Miscellaneous Tools
Questions
Problems
References
The Office Environment
General Musculoskeletal Problems
The Seated Workplace
Seated Posture
Seated Posture at a Computer Workstation
Determination of Seated Comfort
Seat Pressure
Sit-Stand, Forward-Sloping, and Saddle Chairs
Work Surface and Line of Sight
The Keyboard
Standard Keyboard Features
Split and Sloped Keyboards
Layout of Keys
Chord Keyboards
Numeric Keypads
The Mouse and Other Cursor-Positioning Devices
Cursor Positioning
The Mouse
Mouse Alternatives
Notebooks and Handheld PCs
Control Measures
Rest Pauses
Exercises
Questions
References
Glossary
Name Index
Subject Index