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Chemical Pesticides Mode of Action and Toxicology

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ISBN-10: 0748409106

ISBN-13: 9780748409105

Edition: 2004

Authors: Jorgen Stenersen, Steven Strauss

List price: $140.00
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Description:

Environmental-friendliness, issues of public health, and the pros and cons of genetically-modified crops all receive regular coverage in the world's media. This, in turn, has led to increased questioning and investigation of chemical pesticides. Stenersen's concise and timely introduction to chemical pesticides describes these compounds according to their mode of action at the cellular and biochemical level.Chemical Pesticides provides answers to questions such as why pesticides are toxic to the target organism and why pesticides are toxic to some organisms and not others. It describes how various poisons interfere with biochemical processes in organisms. The book also explores how…    
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Book details

List price: $140.00
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 5/27/2004
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 296
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.232
Language: English

Introduction
Motivation
Pesticides and opinion
The fly in the soup
Low-tech food production
Conclusion
A great market
The number of chemicals used as pesticides
Amounts of pesticides produced
Marketing
Dirty dozens
Nomenclature, definitions, and terminology
Toxicology, ecotoxicology, and environmental toxicology
Pesticides, biocides, common names, chemical names, and trade names
Chemical structures are versatile
Helpful reading
Biochemistry and cell biology
General toxicology
Insect biochemistry, plant physiology, and neurophysiology
Pesticides
Side effects of pesticides
Why is a toxicant poisonous?
Seven routes to death
Enzyme inhibitors
Disturbance of the chemical signal systems
Toxicants that generate very reactive molecules that destroy cellular components
Weak organic bases or acids that degrade the pH gradients across membranes
Toxicants that dissolve in lipophilic membranes and disturb their physical structure
Toxicants that disturb the electrolytic or osmotic balance or the pH
Strong electrophiles, alkalis, acids, oxidants, or reductants that destroy tissue, DNA, or proteins
How to measure toxicity
Endpoints
Endpoints in ecotoxicology and pest control
Endpoints in human toxicology
Dose and effect
Dose and response
Dose-response curves for the stable fly
Scatter in dose-response data
LD50 and related parameters
Acute and chronic toxicity
Interactions
Definitions
Isoboles
Mechanisms of interactions
Examples
Piperonyl butoxide
Deltamethrin and fenitrothion
Atrazine and organophosphate insecticides
Pesticides interfering with processes important to all organisms
Pesticides that disturb energy production
Anabolic and catabolic processes
Synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A and the toxic mechanism of arsenic
The citric acid cycle and its inhibitors
Fluoroacetate
Inhibitors of succinic dehydrogenase
The electron transport chain and production of ATP
Rotenone
Inhibitors of electron transfer from cytochrome b to c[subscript 1]
Inhibitors of cytochrome oxidase
Uncouplers
Inhibition of ATP production
Organotin compounds
Diafenthiuron
Summary
Herbicides that inhibit photosynthesis
Weak organic acids
Free radical generators
D[subscript 1] blockers
Urea derivatives
Triazines
Inhibitors of carotene synthesis
Amitrole
Aclonifen
Beflubutamid
Protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors
General SH reagents and free radical generators
Mercury
Other multisite fungicides
Perhalogenmercaptans
Alkylenebis(dithiocarbamate)s and dimethyldithiocarbamates
Fungicides with copper
Pesticides interfering with cell division
Fungicides
Benomyl
Thiofanate-methyl
Carbendazim
Thiabendazole
Diethofencarb
Herbicides
Trifluralin
Carbetamide
Pesticides inhibiting enzymes in nucleic acid synthesis
Sporulation-inhibiting fungicides
Inhibition of incorporation of uridine into RNA
Bacillus thuringiensis and its toxins
The mechanism of action of [delta]-endotoxins
Biotechnology
Engineered plants
Biology
Commercial products
Specific enzyme inhibitors
Inhibitors of ergosterol synthesis
Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase
Inhibition of squalene expoxidase
DMI fungicides
Examples of DMI fungicides from each group
Azoles and triazoles
Pyridines and pyrimidines
Piperazines
Amines
Morpholines
Conclusions
Herbicides that inhibit synthesis of amino acids
The mode of action of glyphosate
Degradation of glyphosate
Selectivity
Mode of action of glufosinate
Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase
Inhibitors of chitin synthesis
Insecticides
Fungicides
Inhibitors of cholinesterase
Acetylcholinesterase
Organophosphates
Naturally occurring organophosphorus insecticides
Carbamates
Molecular structure and potency of inhibition
Development of organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides
Parathion and similar compounds
Aliphatic organophosphates
Examples of carbamates
Other enzymes inhibited by organophosphates and carbamates
The butyrylcholinesterases
The neurotoxic target enzyme (NTE)
Carboxylesterases
Interference with signal transduction in the nerves
Potency of nerve poisons
Selectivity
The nerve and the nerve cell
Pesticides that act on the axon
Impulse transmission along the axon
Pesticides
Pyrethroids
DDT and its analogues
Pesticides acting on synaptic transmission
Inhibitory synapses
Pesticides
Lindane
Fipronil
Cyclodiene insecticides
Avermectins
The cholinergic synapses
Atropine
Nicotinoids and neonicotinoids
Cartap
Calcium channels as possible targets for insecticides
Summary
Pesticides that act as signal molecules
Insect hormones
Insect endocrinology
Juvenile hormone
American paper towels
Juvenile hormone agonists as pesticides
Antagonists
Ecdysone
Phyto-ecdysones
Synthetic ecdysteroids used as insecticides
Azadirachtin
Behavior-modifying pesticides
Definitions
Pheromones
Structure-activity relationships
Alarm and trail pheromones
Aggregation pheromones
Pheromones used as pesticides and lures
Coleoptera
Lepidoptera
Fruit flies
Aphid food deterrent
Mosquito repellents
Plant hormones
Translocation and degradation of pesticides
The compartment model
The bioconcentration factor
The half-life
The area under the curve
Example
Disappearance of dieldrin in sheep
Dieldrin uptake in sheep
Degradation of pesticides by microorganisms
Degradation by adaption
Degradation by co-metabolism
Kinetics of degradation
Importance of chemical structure for degradation
Examples
Co-metabolism and adaptation
Parathion and other pesticides with nitro groups
Ester hydrolysis of carbaryl
Mineralization of dalapon
The degraders
Soil adsorption
Why are chemicals adsorbed?
Examples
Measurements of adsorption
Desorption
Evaporation
Example
Biotransformation in animals
Oxidation
Epoxide hydrolase
Glutathione transferase
Hydrolases
Glucoronosyltransferase and sulfotransferase
Stereospecific biotransformation
Designing pesticides that have low mammalian toxicity
Acephate
Malathion and dimethoate
Nereistoxin
Resistance to pesticides
Definitions
Resistance is an inevitable result of evolution
Time for resistance development
Questions about resistance
Are resistant insects more robust than sensitive ones?
Is resistance caused by one allele in one gene locus?
Do pesticides cause resistance?
Biochemical mechanisms
Increased detoxication
DDT dehydrochlorinase
Hydrolases
CYP enzymes in insects
CYP enzymes in plants
Insensitive target enzyme or target receptor site
Acetylcholinesterase
kdr resistance
Resistance in fungi
Benzimidazole
Sterol biosynthesis inhibitors
Atrazine resistance and plants made resistant by genetic engineering
Resistance to glyphosate
Summary
Resistance to older biocides used as pesticides
Resistance to third- and fourth-generation pesticides
How to delay development of resistance
Refuge strategy
Mixing pesticides with different modes of action and different detoxication patterns
Switching life-stage target
Increased sensitivity in resistant pests
Inhibition of detoxication enzymes
Conclusions
Pesticides as environmental hazards
Pesticides are poisons
Pesticides are xenobiotics
Various types of bias
Publication bias
Test bias
Extrapolation bias
Benchmark values
Required toxicological tests for official approval of a pesticide
Analysis of residues in food and the environment
Definitions
Sampling
Sample preparation
Analysis
Chromatographic methods
Biological methods
Pesticide residues in food
Toxicity classification of pesticides
Classification of carcinogenecity
Definitions of ADI and NOEL and tolerance limits
ADI
NOEL
Residue tolerance limits
Comparing health hazards of pesticides with other toxicants present in the market basket
Elixirs of death
Nomenclature and structure of dixoins
Dioxins in pesticides
Vietnam
Presence of dioxins in pesticides in general
Toxicology
The target
Dioxin and metabolism of caffeine
Analysis
Saturday, 12:30, July 10, 1976
Summary
Angry bird-watchers, youth criminals, and impotent rats
Clear Lake
Peregrine falcons and other birds of prey
Borlaug's warning
DDT and impotence?
Conclusions
Literature
Index