Physiological Pharmaceutics Barriers to Drug Absorption

ISBN-10: 0748406107

ISBN-13: 9780748406104

Edition: 2nd 2000 (Revised)

Authors: Neena Washington, Clive Wilson, Clive Washington

List price: $74.95
eBook available
30 day, 100% satisfaction guarantee

If an item you ordered from TextbookRush does not meet your expectations due to an error on our part, simply fill out a return request and then return it by mail within 30 days of ordering it for a full refund of item cost.

Learn more about our returns policy

Description:

Physiological Pharmaceutics 2nd Edition has been written to meet the need for a high quality up to date and accessible pharmacology textbook. The book has a breadth of subject coverage designed to bridge the gap between classical pharmacy and the biological sciences giving students an overview of the biological environment in which drugs are expected to perform. Based upon the popular first edition, the second edition has been extensively revised and updated with the student in mind. It has undergone a thorough overhaul of its artwork and figures and includes the latest in new developments and research results. As in its predecessor, the authors have avoided any unnecessary mathematical complexity that is not central to the students understanding of the core subject. Physiological Pharmaceutics provides an integrated approach to the study of drug formulation in the body with the emphasis on the formulation variables rather than the drugs. The link between physiology and pharmaceutics is presented to give anessential background of biological principles for the pharmacy student.
eBooks Starting from $31.98
Rent eBooks
Buy eBooks
what's this?
Rush Rewards U
Members Receive:
coins
coins
You have reached 400 XP and carrot coins. That is the daily max!
Study Briefs

Limited time offer: Get the first one free! (?)

All the information you need in one place! Each Study Brief is a summary of one specific subject; facts, figures, and explanations to help you learn faster.

Add to cart
Study Briefs
Medical Terminology Online content $4.95 $1.99
Add to cart
Study Briefs
Medical Math Online content $4.95 $1.99
Customers also bought
Loading
Loading
Loading
Loading
Loading
Loading
Loading
Loading
Loading
Loading

Book details

List price: $74.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 12/21/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 328
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.430
Language: English

Writer, speaker, facilitator and business coach focused on inspiring performancebeyond boundaries, Clive became deputy chairman at Primeast in 2008 after sevenyears as managing director. In 2009 he was appointed as Ambassador for theChartered Management Institute in the UK. His roles provide opportunities todevelop and promote progressive approaches to release the potential of individuals, teams, organisations and communities.

Cell Membranes, Epithelial Barriers and Drug Absorption
Introduction
The Plasma Membrane
The phospholipid bilayer
Dynamic behaviour of membranes
Modulation of membrane fluidity by sterols
Models of cell membranes
Membrane proteins
Membrane asymmetry
Epithelia
Cell junctions
Transport Across Cell Membranes
Passive diffusion
Facilitated and carrier mediated diffusion
Cotransport
Uptake of macromolecules and particles
Intercellular Routes of Absorption
Persorption
Mucus
Conclusions
References
Parenteral Drug Delivery
Introduction
Intravenous Delivery
Physiology
Advantages and disadvantages of intravenous delivery
Formulation considerations
Devices and technologies
Injected particulates
Intravenous oxygen carriers
Intramuscular Delivery
Physiology
Pharmacokinetics
Formulation considerations
Subcutaneous Delivery
Physiology
Subcutaneous colloidal delivery systems
Tissue Damage and Biocompatability
Drug Distribution Following Parenteral Administration
Protein Binding
The Blood-Brain Barrier
Physiology
Uptake by diffusion
Receptor-mediated transport
Colloidal delivery
References
Drug Delivery to the Oral Cavity or Mouth
Anatomy and Physiology
The oral cavity
The palate
The tongue
The teeth
Organisation of the oral mucosa
Functions of the oral mucosa
Salivary secretion
Migration and Clearance of Substances from the Oral Cavity
Absorption of Drugs across the Oral Mucosa
Disadvantages of oral mucosal delivery
Effect of position on drug delivery
Gingival penetration
Improving penetration through the mucosa
Measurement of Oral Mucosal Drug Absorption
Dosage Forms for the Oral Cavity
Chewable formulations
Fast-dissolving dosage forms
Bioadhesive dosage forms
Dental systems
Drugs Administered Via the Oral Mucosa
Nitrates
Steroids
Analgesics
Antibiotics
Antifungals
Others
Conclusions
References
Oesophageal Transit
Introduction
Anatomy and Physiology
Oesophagus
Gastro-oesophageal junction or cardia
Motility of the Oesophagus
Oesophageal Transit of Dosage Forms
Measurement
Typical transit times
Oesophageal Adhesion of Dosage Forms
Factors predisposing formulations to adhere
Consequences of Adhesion of Dosage Forms
Delay in drug absorption
Oesophageal damage
Effect of Ageing
Patient Preference and Ease of Swallowing
Effect of Diseased States on Transit
Targeting the Oesophagus
Conclusions
References
The Stomach
Anatomy and Physiology
Organisation of the stomach
Gastric secretion
Digestion and absorption
Gastric pH
Circadian rhythm of acidity
pH and gender
pH and age
pH and smoking
Gastric Motility
The fasted state
The fed state
Physiological factors which influence gastric emptying
Effect of disease on gastric emptying
Dispersion of Dosage Forms in the Stomach
Hard gelatin capsules
Soft gelatin capsules
Gastric Emptying of Dosage Forms
Time of dosing relative to a meal
Retention of formulations in the stomach
Posture effects
Drug-induced effects on gastric emptying
Gastric pH and Enteric Coatings
Drug/Formulation Induced Ulceration
Animal Models for Gastric Emptying
References
Drug Absorption from the Small Intestine
Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Intestine
Gross morphology
Mucosa
Organisation of the mucosa
The gastrointestinal circulation
The lymphatic system
Secretions into the small intestine
Secretion and absorption of water
Digestion and absorption of nutrients
Patterns of Motility in the Small Intestine
Stagnation at the ileocaecal junction
Small Intestinal Transit Times
Methods for measuring small intestinal transit
Small intestinal transit times of food
Physiological and pathophysiological effects on small bowel transit
Small intestinal transit time of dosage forms
Density and small intestinal transit
Absorption of Drugs
Absorption and delivery of macromolecules
Intestinal pH
Solvent drag and intestinal permeability
P-glycoprotein
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4)
Intestinal reserve length
Interaction with food
First-pass metabolism
Relationship Between Drug Absorption and Position of Dose Form
Radio controlled capsule
Absorption of drugs and foreign substances through the lymphatic system
Drug Induced Damage
References
Drug Delivery to the Large Intestine and Rectum
Introduction
Anatomy and Physiology of the Colon
Interspecies differences in structure
Colonic structure
Gut wall metabolism
Blood supply
Nervous and humoral control
Colonic environment
Colonic motility
Drug absorption from the colon
Drug Delivery
Transit
Dietary factors
Temporal factors
Targeting the proximal colon
Effect of disease and co-medication on colonic drug absorption
Rectal Administration of Drugs
Drug absorption and avoidance of first-pass metabolism
Dosage forms for rectal delivery
Adjuvants and enhancers
Spreading of rectal dosage forms
Therapeutic agents administered rectally
Rectal irritation and damage
Conclusions
References
Transdermal Drug Delivery
Introduction
Structure of the Skin
Epidermis
Dermis
Subcutaneous fat layer
Hair and nails
Sebaceous glands
Eccrine sweat glands
Surface characteristics
Passage of Drug Through the Skin
Model systems for skin
Routes of absorption
Advantages and disadvantages of transdermal delivery
Factors Affecting Percutaneous Absorption
Individual variation
Age
Site
Occlusion
Temperature
Race
Disease
Vehicles and Devices
Penetration Enhancers
Iontophoresis
Electroporation
Sonophoresis
Conclusions
References
Nasal Drug Delivery
Anatomy and Physiology
Nasal epithelia
Nasal lymphatic system
Nasal secretions
The nasal cycle
Mucociliary clearance of inhaled particles
Pathological effects on mucociliary function
External factors affecting mucociliary clearance
Chemical-induced changes
Intranasal Administration of Drugs
Drugs administered for local action
Drugs administered for systemic effect
Drug Delivery Systems and Deposition Patterns
Mechanisms to increase nasal residence time of formulations
Excipient and drug effects on clearance
Effect of formulation pH
Interspecies Comparisons
Conclusions
References
Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System
The lung
Upper airway
Structure of the tracheo-bronchial tree
Epithelium
Lung permeability
Lung mucus
Lung defenses
Lung surfactant
Blood supply
Lymphatic system
Nervous control
Biochemical processes which occur in the lung
Breathing
Respiratory disease
Dosage Forms for Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Pressurized inhalation aerosols
Dry powder inhalers
Nebulizers
Spacer devices and ancillary equipment
Assessment of Deposition by Gamma Scintigraphy
Choice of radiolabel
Labeling inhalation formulations
Labeling dry powder inhalers
Validation
Factors Affecting Particle Deposition in the Lung
Physicochemical properties
Deposition patterns from different dose forms
Physiological variables
Drug Absorption
Pharmacokinetics
Drugs Administered Via the Pulmonary Route
Anti-allergy agents
Beta receptor agonists
Adrenocorticosteroids
Leukotriene inhibitors
Other bronchodilating agents
Mucolytics
Systemically-absorbed drugs
References
Ocular Drug Delivery
Introduction
Structure of the Eye
The cornea
The conjunctiva and sclera
The choroid and retina
The aqueous humor
The eyelids
The precorneal tear film
Blood-eye barriers
Factors Affecting Drug Permeation
Ionization and pH
Protein binding
Pigmentation and drug effects
Drug distribution in the eye
Drug penetration through the sclera and conjunctiva
Factors Influencing Drug Retention
Proper placement of the eyedrops
Influence of instilled volume
Preservatives
Effect of systemically administered drugs
Routes of Drug Administration
Topical administration
Intraocular drug delivery
Systemic administration
Conclusions
References
Vaginal and Interuterine Drug Delivery
Anatomy and Physiology
Mucosa
Blood and nerve supply
Uterine and vaginal fluid
pH
Enzymatic activity
Mucus
Menstruation
Menopause
Disorders of the vagina
Drug Absorption Through the Vagina/Uterus
Drug Delivery
Vaginal
Intrauterine Devices
Conclusion
References
Glossary
Index
Free shipping on orders over $35*

*A minimum purchase of $35 is required. Shipping is provided via FedEx SmartPost® and FedEx Express Saver®. Average delivery time is 1 – 5 business days, but is not guaranteed in that timeframe. Also allow 1 - 2 days for processing. Free shipping is eligible only in the continental United States and excludes Hawaii, Alaska and Puerto Rico. FedEx service marks used by permission."Marketplace" orders are not eligible for free or discounted shipping.

Learn more about the TextbookRush Marketplace.

×