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Environmental Xenobiotics

ISBN-10: 074840399X

ISBN-13: 9780748403998

Edition: 1996

Authors: Mervyn Richardson

List price: $229.95
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Description:

The effects of man-made substances (xenobiotics) on the natural environment are described in this volume. It explains why these effects need to be understood, monitored and curtailed, especially in developing countries.
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Book details

List price: $229.95
Copyright year: 1996
Publisher: C R C Press LLC
Binding: Paper over Boards 
Pages: 480
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.75" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 1.980
Language: English

Preface
List of contributors
Abbreviations and acronyms
Acknowledgements
Definitions
Prolog
Prolog
Introduction
Chemical analysis
Training
Mal-use of chemicals
A way forward
References
Introductory Chapters
Factors Altering the Severity of Adverse Effects Induced in Animals and People by Environmental Xenobiotics
Introduction
Definitions of interactions
Mechanistic basis for interactions
Effects of exposure scenario
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Xenobiotic Mechanisms of Pesticides and Fertilizers in Soil--A Review
Introduction
Fate of pesticides in soil
Biochemical pathways for pesticide degradation
Effects of pesticides on non-target soil organisms and soil biological processes
Fertilizers and heavy metals
Conclusions
References
Environmental Xenobiotics: Pesticides
Introduction
Regulations in the use of pesticides
Xenobiotic transformation
What is not known about pesticide residues
What is required to be known
Pesticides residues in food ... Is There a real problem?
Monitoring programs
Mode of action: herbicides
Advantages and disadvantages in natural xenobiotic pesticides
Conclusions
References
Xenobiotics in the Third World Agricultural Environment
Introduction
Xenobiotics in abiotic agroenvironment
Xenobiotics in biotic agroenvironment
Toxicology of major xenobiotics
Agroxenobiotics and regulation
Alternatives to agrochemicals
Conclusions
References
Environmental Transformation in Bioenergy Production Using Anaerobic Digestion
Introduction
Benefits of biogas
Principles of anaerobic bioconversion
Sources of waste materials for bioconversion
Anaerobic digestion
Environmental factors affecting anaerobic operation
Safety and utilization of biogas
Costs of bioenergy
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Biomonitoring
Integrative Approach to Aquatic Environment Biomonitoring
Introduction
Transport, bioavailability and uptake
Biochemical and molecular markers in biomonitoring
Criteria for selection of biomarkers of environmental pollution
Integrative approach in monitoring
References
Cytochrome P-450 in Pollution Monitoring. Use of Cytochrome P-450 1A (CYP1A) as a Biomarker of Organic Pollution in Aquatic and other Organisms
Introduction
General features and use of biomarkers
Induction of cytochrome P-450 1A (CYP1A) in animals as a specific biomarker of organic pollution
CYP1A-Catalyzed metabolisms and links with higher order deleterious effects
Concluding remarks
Acknowledgements
References
Immunoassays for Rapid, Inexpensive Monitoring of Agricultural Chemicals
Introduction
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs)
Case studies
Potential applications; limitations
References
The Role of Algae in Ecotoxicological Tests
Introduction
Test algae
Test methodologies
Test endpoints
Vulnerability of algae to toxic contaminants
Conclusions and future of algal ecotoxicological tests
References
Use of Micro-Scale Aquatic Toxicity Tests in Ecolabelling Guidelines for General Purpose Cleaners
Introduction
Materials and methods
Results and discussion
Conclusions
Acknowledgments
References
Radiation Sources and Experimental Conditions for Testing the Photodegradability of Xenobiotics in Surface Waters: Actual Status and New Developments
Introduction
Experimental
Results
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Biodegradability
Biological Degradability Testing
Introduction
Methods of biodegradability assays
Biodegradability limits
Acknowledgements
References
Chlorinated Acetanilides: Biodegradation and Toxicity in Gram-Negative Cells
Introduction
Application and chemical properties of acetanilides and related derivatives
Metabolism and biodegradation of chlorinated acetanilides
Toxicity of chlorinated acetanilides and related derivatives
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Novel Environmental Concepts
Organic Explosives as Dangerous Environmental Xenobiotics--QSAR Studies
Introduction
Elements of structure-property analysis
Methods and examples
Results and discussion
Concluding remarks
References
Environmental Dynamics and Ecotoxicology of Human and Veterinary Drugs
Introduction
Pharmaceutical agents and their effects on ecosystems
Persistence and fate
Antibiotic manufacture
Effects and usage
Regulatory aspects
References
Carcinogenic Xenobiotics in Ecosystems and Human Health
Introduction
Carcinogens in the phytosphere
Influence of carcinogens on plants
How carcinogens influence the natural ecosystems
Carcinogens in aquatic ecosystems
Implications of carcinogenic contamination of biosensors for human health
Conclusions
References
Environmental Aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Originating Mainly From Coal-Fired Combustion Systems and Their Monitoring Requirements
Introduction
Sources of PAH and their occurrence in the environment
Combustion system monitoring with respect to PAHs
Results
References
Distribution of Mercury, Lead and Cadmium in Zagreb City Soil
Introduction
Some notes on anthropogenic pollution sources of mercury, lead and cadmium
Sampling in Zagreb city
Results, geochemical maps
Discussion
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Remains of World War 1 Geochemical Pollution in the Landscape
Introduction
Background
Materials and methods
Results and discussion
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Management and Regulatory Aspects
Management of Environmental Xenobiotics
Introduction
Environmental toxicology
Environmental risk assessment of new and existing substances
Integrated pollution control (IPC)
Conclusions
References
Environmental Regulatory Control of Biocides, Pesticides, and Human and Veterinary Medicines
Introduction
Control of agricultural pesticides in the European Union
Control of biocides in the European Union
The US Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act
Environmental risk assessment of human and veterinary pharmaceutical products in the EU
Environmental assessment of pharmaceutical products in the USA
Conclusions
References
Epilog
Epilog
Rationale
Mechanisms of interactions
Mixtures
Transformation
Monitoring
Novel concepts
Regulatory aspects
Some environmental problems
Conclusion
References
Index