Neurophysiological Basis of Movement

ISBN-10: 0736063676

ISBN-13: 9780736063678

Edition: 2nd 2008

Authors: Mark L. Latash, Mark L. Latash

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With eight new chapters and 130 pages of fresh material, this second edition covers a wide range of topics, including movement disorders and current theories of motor control and co-ordination.
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Book details

List price: $96.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Human Kinetics Publishers
Publication date: 12/13/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 440
Size: 8.50" wide x 10.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 3.432
Language: English

Membranes, Particles, and Potentials
Complex System Approach
The Biological Membrane
Movement in a Solution
Concentration of Water: Osmosis
Movement of Ions: The Nernst Equation
Action Potential
Creation of Membrane Potential
Basic Features of Action Potential
Mechanism of Generation of Action Potential
Information Conduction and Transmission
Conduction of Action Potential
Myelinated Fibers
The Structure of Neuron
Information Coding in the Nervous System
Synaptic Transmission
Temporal and Spatial Summation
Skeletal Muscle
Skeletal muscle: Structure
Neuromuscular Synapse
Mechanism of Contraction
Types of Muscle Contraction
Elements of Mechanics
Force-Length and Force-Velocity Relations
External Regimes of Muscle Contraction
General Classification and Properties of Receptors
Muscle Spindles
The Gamma System
Golgi Tendon Organs
Other Muscle Receptors
Articular Receptors
Cutaneous Receptors
Where Does the Information Go?
Motor Units and Electromyography
The Notion of Motor Unit
Fast and Slow Motor Units
The Henneman Principle (the Size Principle)
Functional Role of Motor Units
Filtering, Rectification, and Integration
Excitation and Inhibition Within the Spinal Cord
The Spinal Cord
Excitation Within the Central Nervous System
Postsynaptic Inhibition
Renshaw Cells
Presynaptic Inhibition
Persistent Inward Current
Monosynaptic Reflexes
Reflex Arc
H- and T-Reflexes and M-Response
Effects of Voluntary Muscle Activation on Monosynaptic Reflexes
Oligosynaptic and Polysynaptic Reflexes
Oligosynaptic Reflexes
Polysynaptic Reflexes
Flexor Reflex
Tonic Stretch Reflex
Tonic Vibration Reflex
Interaction Among Reflex Pathways
Interjoint and Interlimb Reflexes
Voluntary Control of a Single Muscle
Feedforward and Feedback Control
Servo Control
The Servo-Hypothesis
Alpha-Gamma Coactivation
Voluntary Activation of Muscles
Equilibrium-Point Control
Patterns of Single-Joint Movements
Isotonic Movements and Isometric Contractions
Performance and Task Parameters
EMG Patterns During Single-Joint Isotonic Movements
EMG Patterns During Single-Joint Isometric Contractions
The Dual-Strategy Hypothesis
Preprogrammed Reactions
Preprogrammed Reactions
Preprogrammed Reaction Is not a Stretch Reflex
In Search of the Afferent Source of Preprogrammed Reactions
Preprogrammed Reactions During Movement Perturbations
Basic Features of Preprogrammed Reactions
Preprogrammed Corrections of Vertical Posture
Corrective Stumbling Reaction
Elements of the Brain Anatomy
Single-Neuron Recording
Evoked Potentials
Computerized Tomography
Positron Emission Tomography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Neuroanatomical Tracing
Major Brain Structures
Cerebral Cortex
Cerebral Hemispheres
Structure of the Cerebral Cortex
Primary Motor and Premotor Areas
Inputs to Motor Cortex
Outputs of Motor Cortex
Preparation for a Voluntary Movement
Neuronal Population Vectors
What Variables May Be Encoded in the Cortical Neuronal Activity?
The Cerebellum
Anatomy of the Cerebellum
Cerebellar Inputs
Cerebellar Outputs
Relation of Cerebellar Activity to Voluntary Movement
Neuronal Population Vectors
The Effects of Cerebellar Lesions
The Basal Ganglia
Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia
Inputs and Outputs of the Basal Ganglia
Motor Circuits Involving the Basal Ganglia
Activity of Basal Ganglia During Movements
Effects of Lesions of the Basal Ganglia
Ascending and Descending Pathways
Basic Properties of Neural Pathways
Afferent Input to the Spinal Cord
Dorsal Column Pathway
Spinocervical Pathway
Spinothalamic Tract
Spinocerebellar Tracts
Spinoreticular Tract
Pyramidal Tract
Rubrospinal Tract
Vestibulospinal Tracts
Reticulospinal Tracts and Other Descending Tracts
Propriospinal Tracts
Cranial Nerves
Descartes' Dualism and Cellular Mechanisms of Memory
Muscle Memory
Types of Memory and Learning
Habituation of Reflexes: An Example of Nonassociative Learning
Conditioned Reflexes: An Example of Associative Learning
Motor Learning
Short-Term and Long-Term Memory
Neuronal and Synaptic Mechanisms of Memory
Retrieval of Memory
Genetic Code as an Example of Memory
Plasticity in the Brain
Korsakoff Syndrome
Possible Role of Hippocampus and Cerebellum in Memory
Spinal Memory
Behaviors: Control and Coordination
General Issues of Motor Control
Design of the Human Body: A Source of Problems
Force Control
Engrams and the Generalized Motor Program
Internal Models
The Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis: The Main Ideas
The Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis: More Subtle Points
Dynamic Systems Approach
Motor Synergies
Motor Redundancy Problem
Optimization Approaches
Principle of Abundance
Structural Units and Synergies
Studies of Motor Synergies: Principal Component Analysis
Uncontrolled Manifold Hypothesis
Postural Control
Vertical Posture
Postural Sway
Vestibular System
The Role of Vision in Postural Control
The Role of Proprioception in Postural Control
Anticipatory Postural Adjustments
Corrective Postural Reactions
Postural Synergies
Two Approaches to Locomotion
Central Pattern Generator
Locomotor Centers
Spinal Locomotion
Spinal Control of Locomotion in Humans
Gait Patterns
Dynamic Pattern Generation
Step Initiation
Corrective Stumbling Reaction
Multijoint Movement
General Features of Targeted Reaching Movements
Major Problems of Controlling Natural Reaching Movements
Interjoint Reflexes
Spinal Mechanisms of Multijoint Coordination
Supraspinal Mechanisms
The Equilibrium-Trajectory Hypothesis
What Is Controlled During Multijoint Movements?
Hand Joints and Muscles
Cortical Representations of the Hand
Indices of Finger Interaction
Multifinger Synergies in Pressing Tasks
Prehension Synergies and the Principle of Superposition
Eye Movement and Vision
The Eye
Retina and Optic Nerve
Oculomotor Control
Central Mechanisms of Visual Perception
The Role of Visual Information in Voluntary Movements
Which Physical Variables Are Sensed by Proprioceptors?
Peripheral Sources of Kinesthetic Information
The Role of the Motor Command in Kinesthesia
Where Does the Information Go?
Kinesthetic Illusions
Fatigue and Its Contributors
Muscular Mechanisms of Fatigue
Spinal Mechanisms of Fatigue
Supraspinal Mechanisms of Fatigue
Adaptive Changes During Fatigue
Abnormal Fatigue
Effects of Aging
General Features of Movements in Elderly
Changes in Muscles and Motor units With Age
Muscle Reflexes in Elderly
Changes in the Sensory Function
Muscle Activation Patterns During Fast Movements
Changes in Posture and Gait with Age
Hand Function in Elderly
Adaptive Changes in Motor Patterns
Effects of Training
Typical and Atypical Development
Humans at Birth
Motor Milestones During Typical Development
Exploration and Emergent Motor Patterns
Down Syndrome
Effects of Practice in Down Syndrome
Development Coordination Disorder
Motor Disorders
Peripheral Muscular and Neurological Disorders
Myopathies and Neuropathies
Muscular Dystrophies
Continuous Muscle Fiber Activity Syndromes
Myasthenia Gravis
Peripheral Neuropathies
Motor Disorders Associated With Diabetes
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Spinal Cord Injury and Spasticity
Consequence of Spinal Cord Injury
Signs and Symptoms of Spasticity
Possible Mechanisms of Spasticity
Treatment of Spasticity
Multiple Sclerosis
Disorders Involving the Basal Ganglia
Clinical Features of Parkinson's Disease
Voluntary Movements in Parkinson's Disease
Changes in Postural Control and Locomotion
Treatment of Parkinson's Disease
Huntington's Chorea
Tardive Diskinesia
Cerebellar Disorders
Consequences of Cerebellar Injuries in Animals
Causes of Cerebellar Disorders
Abnormalities of Stance and Gait
Voluntary Movements in Cerebellar Disorders
Cerebellar Tremor
Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome
Cortical Disorders
Consequences of Lesions of Cortical Lobes
Essential Tremor
Tourette's Syndrome
Cerebral Palsy
Williams Syndrome
Wilson's Disease
Implications for Motor Rehabilitation
Do "Normal Movements" Exist?
Back to the Problem of Structural Units and Synergies
Changes in CNS Priorities
The Role of CNS Plasticity
Adaptive Changes in Motor Patterns of Atypical Individuals
Practical Considerations
Subject index
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