Software Requirements

ISBN-10: 0735618798

ISBN-13: 9780735618794

Edition: 2nd 2003 (Revised)

Authors: Karl E. Wiegers

List price: $39.99 Buy it from $1.49
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Have you ever delivered software that satisfied all the project specifications-and seemingly none of the customer's expectations? In Software Requirements, 2nd Edition, you'll discover practical, proven techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cycle. The author, a leading speaker and consultant in the field of requirements engineering, has expanded his award-winning book with more real-world case examples, up-to-date coverage of use cases and commercially available tools, additional practice exercises, and a new troubleshooting guide. He's also refined his own set of tools and templates for facilitating that all-important communication among users, developers, and management. No matter what kind of software you build or what your role in the development process, this book, delivers the expert tools and guidance you need to engineer software success!
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Book details

List price: $39.99
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Microsoft Press
Publication date: 2/26/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 544
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.00" long x 1.60" tall
Weight: 2.398
Language: English

Karl E. Wiegers is Principal Consultant with Process Impact, a software process consulting and education company based in Portland, Oregon. Previously, he spent 18 years at Eastman Kodak Company, where he held positions as a photographic research scientist, software developer, software manager, and software process and quality improvement leader. He led process improvement activities for small teams, for a division of 500 software engineers building Kodak's digital imaging products, and for the Kodak Internet development group. As a consultant and trainer, Karl has worked with more than 100 companies in many different industry sectors and government agencies at all levels on requirements engineering, software peer reviews, process improvement, and project management. Karl received a PhD in organic chemistry from the University of Illinois. He has served on the Editorial Board for IEEE Software magazine and as a Contributing Editor for Software Development magazine. Karl is the author of numerous books, including a memoir of life lessons titled "Pearls from Sand: How Small Encounters Lead to Powerful Lessons." He has written nearly 200 articles on many aspects of software development and management, chemistry, and military history. He is a frequent speaker at software conferences, public seminars, and professional society meetings. Karl's websites include,, and

Software Requirements: What, Why, and Who
The Essential Software Requirement
Software Requirements Defined
Some Interpretations of Requirement
Levels of Requirements
What Requirements Are Not
Requirements Development and Management
Requirements Development
Requirements Management
Every Project Has Requirements
When Bad Requirements Happen to Nice People
Insufficient User Involvement
Creeping User Requirements
Ambiguous Requirements
Gold Plating
Minimal Specification
Overlooked User Classes
Inaccurate Planning
Benefits from a High-Quality Requirements Process
Characteristics of Excellent Requirements
Requirement Statement Characteristics
Requirements Specification Characteristics
Requirements from the Customer's Perspective
Who Is the Customer?
The Customer-Development Partnership
Requirements Bill of Rights for Software Customers
Requirements Bill of Responsibilities for Software Customers
What About Sign-Off?
Good Practices for Requirements Engineering
Requirements Elicitation
Requirements Analysis
Requirements Specification
Requirements Validation
Requirements Management
Project Management
Getting Started with New Practices
A Requirements Development Process
The Requirements Analyst
The Requirements Analyst Role
The Analyst's Tasks
Essential Analyst Skills
Essential Analyst Knowledge
The Making of an Analyst
The Former User
The Former Developer
The Subject Matter Expert
Creating a Collaborative Environment
Software Requirements Development
Establishing the Product Vision and Project Scope
Defining the Vision Through Business Requirements
Conflicting Business Requirements
Business Requirements and Use Cases
Vision and Scope Document
Business Requirements
Vision of the Solution
Scope and Limitations
Business Context
The Context Diagram
Keeping the Scope in Focus
Finding the Voice of the Customer
Sources of Requirements
User Classes
Finding User Representatives
The Product Champion
External Product Champions
Product Champion Expectations
Multiple Product Champions
Selling the Product Champion Idea
Product Champion Traps to Avoid
Who Makes the Decisions?
Hearing the Voice of the Customer
Requirements Elicitation
Elicitation Workshops
Classifying Customer Input
Some Cautions About Elicitation
Finding Missing Requirements
How Do You Know When You're Done?
Understanding User Requirements
The Use-Case Approach
Use Cases and Usage Scenarios
Identifying Use Cases
Documenting Use Cases
Use Cases and Functional Requirements
Benefits of Use Cases
Use-Case Traps to Avoid
Event-Response Tables
Playing by the Rules
The Rules of the Business
Action Enablers
Documenting Business Rules
Business Rules and Requirements
Documenting the Requirements
The Software Requirements Specification
Labeling Requirements
Dealing with Incompleteness
User Interfaces and the SRS
A Software Requirements Specification Template
Overall Description
System Features
External Interface Requirements
Other Nonfunctional Requirements
Other Requirements
Analysis Models
Issues List
Guidelines for Writing Requirements
Sample Requirements, Before and After
The Data Dictionary
A Picture Is Worth 1024 Words
Modeling the Requirements
From Voice of the Customer to Analysis Models
Data Flow Diagram
Entity-Relationship Diagram
State-Transition Diagram
Dialog Map
Class Diagrams
Decision Tables and Decision Trees
A Final Reminder
Beyond Functionality: Software Quality Attributes
Quality Attributes
Defining Quality Attributes
Attributes Important to Users
Attributes Important to Developers
Performance Requirements
Defining Nonfunctional Requirements By Using Planguage
Attribute Trade-Offs
Implementing Nonfunctional Requirements
Risk Reduction Through Prototyping
Prototyping: What and Why
Horizontal Prototypes
Vertical Prototypes
Throwaway Prototypes
Evolutionary Prototypes
Paper and Electronic Prototypes
Prototype Evaluation
The Risks of Prototyping
Prototyping Success Factors
Setting Requirement Priorities
Why Prioritize Requirements?
Games People Play with Priorities
A Prioritization Scale
Prioritization Based on Value, Cost, and Risk
Validating the Requirements
Reviewing Requirements
The Inspection Process
Requirements Review Challenges
Testing the Requirements
Defining Acceptance Criteria
Special Requirements Development Challenges
Requirements for Maintenance Projects
Begin Capturing Information
Practice New Requirements Techniques
Follow the Traceability Chain
Update the Documentation
Requirements for Package Solutions
Develop Use Cases
Consider Business Rules
Define Quality Requirements
Requirements for Outsourced Projects
Requirements for Emergent Projects
Casual User Requirements Specification
On-Site Customer
Early and Frequent Prioritization
Simple Change Management
Beyond Requirements Development
From Requirements to Project Plans
Requirements and Estimation
Requirements and Scheduling
From Requirements to Designs and Code
From Requirements to Tests
From Requirements to Success
Software Requirements Management
Requirements Management Principles and Practices
The Requirements Baseline
Requirements Management Procedures
Requirements Version Control
Requirement Attributes
Tracking Requirements Status
Measuring Requirements Management Effort
Change Happens
Managing Scope Creep
The Change-Control Process
Change-Control Policy
Change-Control Process Description
The Change Control Board
CCB Composition
CCB Charter
Change-Control Tools
Measuring Change Activity
Change Isn't Free: Impact Analysis
Impact Analysis Procedure
Impact Analysis Report Template
Links in the Requirements Chain
Tracing Requirements
Motivations for Tracing Requirements
The Requirements Traceability Matrix
Tools for Requirements Tracing
Requirements Traceability Procedure
Is Requirements Traceability Feasible? Is It Necessary?
Tools for Requirements Management
Benefits of Using a Requirements Management Tool
Requirements Management Tool Capabilities
Implementing Requirements Management Automation
Selecting a Tool
Changing the Culture
Making Requirements Management Tools Work for You
Implementing Requirements Engineering
Improving Your Requirements Processes
How Requirements Relate to Other Project Processes
Requirements and Various Stakeholder Groups
Fundamentals of Software Process Improvement
The Process Improvement Cycle
Assess Current Practices
Plan Improvement Actions
Create, Pilot, and Implement New Processes
Evaluate Results
Requirements Engineering Process Assets
Requirements Development Process Assets
Requirements Management Process Assets
Requirements Process Improvement Road Map
Software Requirements and Risk Management
Fundamentals of Software Risk Management
Elements of Risk Management
Documenting Project Risks
Planning for Risk Management
Requirements-Related Risks
Requirements Elicitation
Requirements Analysis
Requirements Specification
Requirements Validation
Requirements Management
Risk Management Is Your Friend
Current Requirements Practice Self-Assessment
Requirements and Process Improvement Models
The Capability Maturity Model for Software
Requirements Management Process Area
Requirements Development Process Area
Requirements Troubleshooting Guide
Root Cause Analysis
Common Symptoms of Requirements Problems
Common Barriers to Implementing Solutions
Sample Requirements Documents
Vision and Scope Document
Use Cases
Software Requirements Specification
Business Rules
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