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Clinical Practice of the Dental Hygienist

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ISBN-10: 068309078X

ISBN-13: 9780683090789

Edition: 7th 1994

Authors: Esther M. Wilkins

List price: $56.00
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Description:

The Ninth Edition of the definitive text on dental hygiene is significantly revised and updated to provide even more focused guidance on all aspects of dental hygiene in the clinical environment. Ideal for both students and practitioners, the book reviews the clinical and educational skills needed for successful practice. Six comprehensive sections address orientation, preparation for appointments, patient assessment, treatment, and patients with special needs. New features include a significantly revised art program, case-based exercises to reinforce understanding, procedure boxes to enhance technique, and ethics boxes. New ancillaries include a student workbook (sold separately) and…    
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Book details

List price: $56.00
Edition: 7th
Copyright year: 1994
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 893
Language: English

The Professional Dental Hygienistp. 3
Factors Influencing Clinical Practicep. 6
Objectives for Practicep. 6
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 7
Preparation for Dental Hygiene Appointments
Infection Control: Transmissible Diseasesp. 11
Microorganisms of the Oral Cavityp. 11
The Infectious Processp. 11
Pathogens Transmissible by the Oral Cavityp. 16
Tuberculosisp. 16
Viral Hepatitisp. 17
Herpesvirus Diseasesp. 25
HIV Infectionp. 29
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 36
Exposure Control: Barriers for Patient and Clinicianp. 41
Personal Protection of the Dental Teamp. 41
Immunizations and Periodic Testsp. 41
Clinical Attirep. 42
Use of Face Maskp. 43
Use of Protective Eyewearp. 44
Hand Carep. 45
Technical Hintsp. 50
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 50
Infection Control: Clinical Proceduresp. 52
Treatment Room Featuresp. 52
Instrument Managementp. 54
Sterilizationp. 56
Chemical Disinfectantsp. 59
Unit Water Linesp. 62
Preparation for Appointmentp. 62
Universal Procedures for the Prevention of Disease Transmissionp. 65
Disposal of Wastep. 67
Technical Hintsp. 67
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 67
Patient Reception and Positioning in the Dental Chairp. 70
Position of the Clinicianp. 71
Position of the Patientp. 73
Functional Factorsp. 76
Technical Hintsp. 77
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 77
Patient Assessment
Diagnostic Workupp. 80
Examination Proceduresp. 80
Tooth Numbering Systemsp. 81
Personal, Medical and Dental Historiesp. 85
History Preparationp. 85
The Questionnairep. 87
The Interviewp. 87
Items Included in the Historyp. 92
Review of Historyp. 95
Immediate Applications of Patient Historiesp. 95
Prophylactic Premedicationp. 102
Technical Hintsp. 103
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 103
Vital Signsp. 106
Body Temperaturep. 106
Pulsep. 109
Respirationp. 111
Blood Pressurep. 111
Technical Hintsp. 114
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 115
Extraoral and Intraoral Examinationp. 116
Objectivesp. 116
Components of Examinationp. 116
Sequence of Examinationp. 118
Recordsp. 119
Description of Observationsp. 121
Oral Cancerp. 124
Special Applications for the Extraoral and Intraoral Examinationp. 127
Child Abuse and Neglectp. 127
Substance Abusep. 128
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 130
Dental Radiographsp. 133
Origin and Characteristics of X Rayp. 133
How X Rays Are Producedp. 135
Characteristics of an Acceptable Radiographp. 136
Factors that Influence the Finished Radiographp. 137
Exposure to Radiationp. 140
Rules for Radiation Protectionp. 142
Procedures for Film Placement and Angulation of Rayp. 145
Panoramic Radiographsp. 152
Child Patient Surveyp. 153
Edentulous Surveyp. 154
Paraclinical Proceduresp. 154
Analysis of Completed Radiographsp. 158
Technical Hintsp. 159
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 161
Study Castsp. 164
Clinical Preparationp. 165
The Interocclusal Record (Wax Bite)p. 166
Preparation of Impression Traysp. 166
The Impression Materialp. 169
The Mandibular Impressionp. 169
The Maxillary Impressionp. 170
Disinfection of Impressionsp. 171
Paraclinical Proceduresp. 171
Trimming the Castsp. 173
Technical Hintsp. 177
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 178
The Gingivap. 180
Objectivesp. 180
The Treatment Areap. 180
The Gingiva and Related Structuresp. 183
The Recognition of Gingival and Periodontal Diseasesp. 186
The Gingival Examinationp. 187
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 193
Disease Development and Contributing Factorsp. 195
Development of Gingival and Periodontal Infectionsp. 195
Gingival and Periodontal Pocketsp. 197
Tooth Surface Pocket Wallp. 198
Complications of Pocket Formationp. 200
Contributing Factors in Disease Developmentp. 201
Xerostomiap. 204
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 205
Examination Proceduresp. 207
The Mouth Mirrorp. 207
Instruments for Application of Airp. 208
Probep. 209
Clinical Attachment Levelp. 215
Furcations Examinationp. 216
Mucogingival Examinationp. 217
Periodontal Chartingp. 217
Explorersp. 219
Mobility Examinationp. 223
Fremitusp. 224
Radiographic Examinationp. 225
Radiographic Changes in Periodontal Infectionsp. 225
Early Periodontal Diseasep. 227
Other Radiographic Findingsp. 227
Technical Hintsp. 228
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 228
The Teethp. 231
The Dentitionsp. 231
Dental Cariesp. 231
Enamel Hypoplasiap. 236
Attritionp. 237
Erosionp. 238
Abrasionp. 238
Fractures of Teethp. 238
Clinical Examination of the Teethp. 239
Recognition of Carious Lesionsp. 242
Testing for Pulpal Vitalityp. 243
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 245
The Occlusionp. 248
Static Occlusionp. 248
Determination of the Classification of Malocclusionp. 250
Occlusion of the Primary Teethp. 253
Functional Occlusionp. 254
Trauma from Occlusionp. 255
Technical Hintsp. 256
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 256
Bacterial Plaque and Other Soft Depositsp. 258
Acquired Pelliclep. 258
Bacterial Plaquep. 260
Clinical Aspectsp. 266
Significance of Bacterial Plaquep. 267
Effect of Diet on Plaquep. 269
Materia Albap. 269
Food Debrisp. 269
Technical Hintsp. 269
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 270
Dental Calculusp. 272
Classification and Distributionp. 272
Clinical Characteristicsp. 273
Calculus Formationp. 275
Significance of Dental Calculusp. 277
Prevention of Calculusp. 278
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 278
Dental Stains and Discolorationsp. 280
Extrinsic Stainsp. 281
Endogenous Intrinsic Stainsp. 283
Exogenous Intrinsic Stainsp. 285
Technical Hintsp. 285
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 285
Indices and Scoring Methodsp. 287
Periodontal Screening and Recording (PSR)p. 289
Plaque Index (PI I)p. 291
Plaque Control Recordp. 292
Plaque-Free Scorep. 293
Patient Hygiene Performance (PHP)p. 295
Oral Hygiene Index (OHI)p. 296
Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S)p. 298
Bleeding Indicesp. 299
Papillary-Marginal-Attached Gingival Index (P-M-A)p. 301
Gingival Index (GI)p. 302
The Periodontal Index (PI)p. 303
The Periodontal Disease Index (PDI)p. 304
Calculus Scorep. 306
Dental Plaque Scorep. 306
Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN)p. 307
Dental Caries Indicesp. 308
Technical Hintsp. 311
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 312
Records and Chartingp. 314
Periodontal Records and Chartingp. 315
Dental Records and Chartingp. 317
Technical Hintsp. 319
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 319
The Dental Hygiene Treatment Planp. 320
Preparation of the Treatment Planp. 320
Planning the Dental Hygiene Treatment Planp. 322
Informed Consentp. 326
Technical Hintsp. 326
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 327
Prevention
Introductionp. 330
Self-Cleansing Mechanismsp. 330
Steps in a Preventive Programp. 330
Patient Counselingp. 331
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 331
Oral Infection Control: Toothbrushes and Toothbrushingp. 333
Development of Toothbrushesp. 333
Manual Toothbrushesp. 334
Toothbrush Selection for the Patientp. 336
Guidelines for Toothbrushingp. 337
Methods for Toothbrushingp. 338
Power-assisted Toothbrushesp. 344
Supplemental Brushingp. 345
Toothbrushing for Special Conditionsp. 347
Toothbrush Trauma: The Gingivap. 347
Toothbrush Trauma: Dental Abrasionp. 348
Care of Toothbrushesp. 349
Interdental Care and Chemotherapyp. 352
The Interdental Areap. 352
Dental Floss and Tapep. 353
Tufted Dental Flossp. 356
Knitting Yarnp. 357
Gauze Stripp. 357
Interdental Brushesp. 358
Single-Tuft Brush (End-Tuft, Unituft)p. 359
Interdental Tipp. 359
Pipe Cleanerp. 360
Toothpick in Holderp. 360
Wood Interdental Cleanerp. 360
Chemotherapyp. 361
Oral Irrigationp. 361
Mouthrinsesp. 364
Dentifricesp. 367
American Dental Association Evaluation Programsp. 370
Technical Hintsp. 370
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 370
Care of Dental Prosthesesp. 376
Orthodontic Appliancesp. 376
Space Maintainersp. 379
Fixed Partial Denturesp. 381
Removable Partial Denturesp. 382
Complete Denturesp. 384
Complete Overdenturep. 389
Technical Hintsp. 390
The Patient with Oral Rehabilitation and Implantsp. 393
Characteristics of the Rehabilitated Mouthp. 394
Self-care for the Rehabilitated Mouthp. 396
Dental Implantsp. 399
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 403
Disclosing Agentsp. 407
Technical Hintsp. 409
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 410
Disease Control: Helping Patients Learnp. 411
Planned Patient Learningp. 411
The Learning Processp. 412
Individual Patient Planningp. 413
Presentation, Demonstration, Practicep. 414
The Preschool Childp. 417
The Teaching Systemp. 419
Evaluation of Teaching Aidsp. 419
Diet and Dietary Analysisp. 422
Oral Relationshipsp. 422
Daily Food Requirementsp. 424
Counseling for Dental Caries Controlp. 425
The Dietary Analysisp. 425
Preparation for Counseling of Patientp. 429
Counseling Proceduresp. 429
Evaluation of Progressp. 431
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 431
Fluoridesp. 434
Fluoride Metabolismp. 434
Fluoride and Tooth Developmentp. 435
Tooth Surface Fluoridep. 436
Fluoride Actionp. 437
Fluoridationp. 438
Fluorides in Foodsp. 442
Dietary Fluoride Supplementsp. 442
Professional Topical Fluoride Applicationsp. 443
Self-applied Fluoridesp. 449
Combined Fluoride Programp. 453
Fluoride Safetyp. 453
Technical Hintsp. 455
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 456
Sealantsp. 462
Selection of Teeth for Sealant Applicationp. 462
Clinical Proceduresp. 463
Penetration of Sealantp. 466
Retention and Replacementp. 467
Fluoride and Sealantp. 467
Technical Hintsp. 468
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 468
Treatment
Introductionp. 472
Principles for Instrumentationp. 473
Instrument Identificationp. 473
Instrument Partsp. 474
Instrument Graspp. 475
Wrist, Arm, Elbow, Shoulder: Neutral Positionsp. 477
Fulcrum: Finger Restp. 477
Adaptationp. 479
Angulationp. 479
Lateral Pressurep. 480
Activation: Strokep. 480
Visibility and Accessibilityp. 481
Dexterity Developmentp. 481
Prevention of Cumulative Traumap. 483
Technical Hintsp. 486
Instruments and Sharpeningp. 488
Curetsp. 488
Scalersp. 490
Specifications for Instruments for Scaling and Root Planingp. 493
Instrument Sharpeningp. 494
Sharpening Curets and Sicklesp. 496
Moving Flat Stone: Stationary Instrumentp. 496
Stationary Flat Stone: Moving Instrumentp. 498
Sharpening Conep. 499
The Neivert Whittlerp. 500
Mandrel Mounted Stonesp. 501
Sharpening the Hoe Scalerp. 502
Sharpening the Chisel Scalerp. 503
Sharpening Explorersp. 503
Care of Sharpening Stonesp. 503
Technical Hintsp. 504
Scaling and Root Planingp. 506
Rationalep. 506
Preparation for Instrumentationp. 507
Procedure for Scalingp. 509
Supragingival Scalingp. 511
Subgingival Instrumentationp. 513
Ultrasonic and Sonic Scalingp. 516
Use of a Topical Anestheticp. 519
Technical Hintsp. 521
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 522
Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy: Postcare and Adjunctive Treatmentp. 525
Immediate Evaluationp. 525
Patient Instructions after Scaling and Root Planingp. 526
Effects of Scaling and Root Planingp. 527
Gingival Curettagep. 528
Professional Subgingival Irrigationp. 531
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 532
Acute Gingival Conditionsp. 536
Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis/Periodontitisp. 536
Periodontal Abscessp. 541
Technical Hintsp. 543
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 544
Dressings and Suturesp. 545
Types of Dressingsp. 545
Clinical Applicationp. 547
Dressing Removal and Replacementp. 547
Suture Removalp. 549
Technical Hintsp. 552
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 552
Hypersensitive Teethp. 554
Desensitizationp. 556
Dental Hygiene Carep. 557
Technical Hintsp. 558
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 558
Extrinsic Stain Removalp. 561
Effects of Polishingp. 561
Indications for Stain Removalp. 563
Clinical Application of Selective Stain Removalp. 564
Cleaning and Polishing Agentsp. 565
Clinical Applicationsp. 566
Procedures for Stain Removal (Coronal Polishing)p. 567
The Instrumentsp. 567
Use of the Prophylaxis Anglep. 568
Polishing Proximal Surfacesp. 569
Airbrasive for Polishingp. 571
Cleaning the Removable Denturep. 571
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 573
The Porte Polisherp. 576
Technical Hintsp. 578
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 579
Amalgam Restorationsp. 580
Rationale for Finishing and Polishingp. 580
The Amalgam Restorationp. 580
Clinical Management: Mercury Hygienep. 584
Finishing Proceduresp. 584
Appointment Planningp. 585
Marginationp. 587
Polishingp. 588
Fluoride Applicationp. 589
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 589
Debondingp. 591
Clinical Procedures for Debondingp. 593
Postdebonding Evaluationp. 594
Postdebonding Preventive Carep. 595
Technical Hintsp. 595
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 595
Evaluation and Preventive Maintenancep. 597
Periodontal Evaluationp. 597
Follow-up Evaluationp. 597
The Maintenance Phasep. 599
Technical Hintsp. 600
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 601
Applied Techniques for Patients with Special Needs
Introduction to Patients with Special Needsp. 604
Special Oral Problemsp. 604
Systemic Diseasesp. 604
Integration of Applications to Special Needsp. 604
The Pregnant Patient and the Infant/Toddlerp. 605
Fetal Developmentp. 605
Oral Findings During Pregnancyp. 608
Aspects of Patient Carep. 608
Dental Hygiene Carep. 609
Patient Instructionp. 610
Infant and Toddler Oral Healthp. 612
The Patient with a Cleft Lip and/or Palatep. 617
Classification of Cleftsp. 617
Etiologyp. 617
Oral Characteristicsp. 618
General Physical Characteristicsp. 619
Personal Factorsp. 620
Treatmentp. 620
Dental Hygiene Carep. 621
Preadolescent to Postmenopausal Patientsp. 624
Puberty and Adolescencep. 624
Menstruationp. 628
Hormonal Contraceptivesp. 629
Menopause and Climatericp. 630
The Gerodontic Patientp. 634
Agingp. 634
Characteristics of Agingp. 635
Oral Findings in Agingp. 637
Personal Factorsp. 639
Dental Hygiene Carep. 639
Technical Hintsp. 644
The Edentulous Patientp. 646
The Edentulous Mouthp. 646
Denture-Related Oral Changesp. 649
Denture-Induced Oral Lesionsp. 649
Prevention and Maintenancep. 650
Denture Marking for Identificationp. 651
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 653
The Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Patientp. 655
Patient Preparationp. 655
Dental Hygiene Carep. 657
Patient with Intermaxillary Fixationp. 659
Treatment of Fracturesp. 660
Dental Hygiene Carep. 664
Dental Hygiene Care Prior to General Surgeryp. 666
Technical Hintsp. 667
The Patient with Oral Cancerp. 669
Descriptionp. 669
Preparation for Treatmentp. 670
Surgical Treatmentp. 671
Radiation Therapyp. 672
Chemotherapyp. 674
Personal Factorsp. 674
Dental Hygiene Carep. 675
Technical Hintsp. 677
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 677
Care of Patients with Disabilitiesp. 679
Dental and Dental Hygiene Carep. 679
Barrier-free Environmentp. 682
Patient Reception: The Initial Appointmentp. 684
Wheelchair Transfersp. 685
Patient Position and Stabilizationp. 687
Clinic Procedures for Assessment of Patientp. 688
Oral Manifestationsp. 689
Dental Hygiene Treatment Planp. 690
Disease Prevention and Controlp. 690
Bacterial Plaque Removalp. 691
Self-care Aidsp. 692
Instruction for Caregiverp. 696
Fluoridesp. 698
Pit and Fissure Sealantsp. 698
Diet Instructionp. 698
Group In-service Educationp. 699
Instrumentationp. 701
The Patient who is Homebound, Bedridden, or Helplessp. 705
Homebound Patientsp. 705
The Helpless or Unconscious Patientp. 707
Technical Hintsp. 709
The Patient with a Physical Impairmentp. 711
Spinal Cord Dysfunctionsp. 711
Spinal Cord Injuryp. 711
Myelomeningocelep. 715
Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke)p. 717
Muscular Dystrophiesp. 719
Myasthenia Gravisp. 720
Multiple Sclerosisp. 721
Cerebral Palsyp. 722
Bell's Palsyp. 725
Parkinson's Diseasep. 725
Arthritisp. 726
Scleroderma (Progressive Systemic Sclerosis)p. 728
The Patient with a Sensory Disabilityp. 731
Visual Impairmentp. 731
Hearing Impairmentp. 734
Technical Hintsp. 740
The Patient with Epilepsyp. 741
Descriptionp. 741
Clinical Manifestationsp. 742
Oral Findingsp. 743
Phenytoin-induced Gingival Enlargement (Overgrowth)p. 744
Dental Hygiene Carep. 745
Emergency Carep. 746
Technical Hintsp. 747
The Patient with Mental Retardationp. 749
Mental Retardationp. 749
Etiology of Mental Retardationp. 751
General Characteristicsp. 752
Dental and Dental Hygiene Care and Instructionp. 752
Down's Syndromep. 752
Autistic Disorderp. 754
Technical Hintsp. 756
The Patient with a Mental Disorderp. 759
Schizophreniap. 759
Mood Disordersp. 763
Anxiety Disordersp. 766
Eating Disordersp. 768
Psychiatric Emergenciesp. 772
The Patient with Alcoholismp. 775
Descriptionp. 775
Systemic Effectsp. 776
Withdrawal Syndromep. 779
Treatmentp. 779
Dental Hygiene Carep. 780
Patient Instructionp. 782
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 782
The Patient with a Cardiovascular Diseasep. 784
Congenital Heart Diseasesp. 784
Rheumatic Heart Diseasep. 787
Infective Endocarditisp. 788
Hypertensionp. 789
Hypertensive Heart Diseasep. 791
Ischemic Heart Diseasep. 791
Angina Pectorisp. 793
Myocardial Infarctionp. 794
Congestive Heart Failurep. 795
Sudden Deathp. 796
Cardiac Pacemakerp. 796
Anticoagulant Therapyp. 798
Cardiovascular Surgeryp. 799
Technical Hintsp. 800
Factors to Teach the Patientp. 800
The Patient with a Blood Disorderp. 802
Oral Findings Suggestive of Blood Disordersp. 802
Normal Bloodp. 802
Anemiasp. 806
Polycythemiasp. 809
White Blood Cellsp. 810
Hemorrhagic Disordersp. 813
Hemophiliasp. 814
The Patient with Diabetes Mellitusp. 818
The Diabetic Syndrome: Classificationp. 818
Effects of Diabetesp. 820
Treatment for Diabetes Controlp. 822
Oral Relationshipsp. 823
Dental Hygiene Carep. 824
Prevention of Diabetesp. 825
Emergency Carep. 828
Prevention of Emergenciesp. 828
Emergency Materials and Preparationp. 830
Basic Life Supportp. 835
Rescue Breathingp. 837
External Chest Compressionp. 837
Airway Obstructionp. 839
Oxygen Administrationp. 841
Specific Emergenciesp. 841
Technical Hintsp. 841
Prefixes, Suffixes, and Combining Formsp. 851
Glossaryp. 855
Appendixp. 865
Indexp. 867
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