Theory of Justice

ISBN-10: 0674880145

ISBN-13: 9780674880146

Edition: 1971

Authors: John Rawls

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Book details

List price: $22.00
Copyright year: 1971
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 607
Size: 5.98" wide x 8.98" long
Weight: 2.090
Language: English

John Rawls, professor of philosophy at Harvard University, had published a number of articles on the concept of justice as fairness before the appearance of his magnum opus, A Theory of Justice (1971). While the articles had won for Rawls considerable prestige, the reception of his book thrust him into the front ranks of contemporary moral philosophy. Presenting a Kantian alternative to conventional utilitarianism and intuitionism, Rawls offers a theory of justice that is contractual and that rests on principles that he alleges would be accepted by free, rational persons in a state of nature, that is, of equality. The chorus of praise was loud and clear. Stuart Hampshire acclaimed the book as "the most substantial and interesting contribution to moral philosophy since the war."H. A. Bedau declared: "As a work of close and original scholarship in the service of the dominant moral and political ideology of our civilization, Rawls's treatise is simply without a rival." Rawls historically achieved two important things: (1) He articulated a coherent moral philosophy for the welfare state, and (2) he demonstrated that analytic philosophy was most capable of doing constructive work in moral philosophy. A Theory of Justice has become the most influential work in political, legal, and social philosophy by an American author in the twentieth century.

Preface for the Revised Editionp. xi
Prefacep. xvii
Justice as Fairnessp. 3
The Role of Justicep. 3
The Subject of Justicep. 6
The Main Idea of the Theory of Justicep. 10
The Original Position and Justificationp. 15
Classical Utilitarianismp. 19
Some Related Contrastsp. 24
Intuitionismp. 30
The Priority Problemp. 36
Some Remarks about Moral Theoryp. 40
The Principles of Justicep. 47
Institutions and Formal Justicep. 47
Two Principles of Justicep. 52
Interpretations of the Second Principlep. 57
Democratic Equality and the Difference Principlep. 65
Fair Equality of Opportunity and Pure Procedural Justicep. 73
Primary Social Goods as the Basis of Expectationsp. 78
Relevant Social Positionsp. 81
The Tendency to Equalityp. 86
Principles for Individuals: The Principle of Fairnessp. 93
Principles for Individuals: The Natural Dutiesp. 98
The Original Positionp. 102
The Nature of the Argument for Conceptions of Justicep. 102
The Presentation of Alternativesp. 105
The Circumstances of Justicep. 109
The Formal Constraints of the Concept of Rightp. 112
The Veil of Ignorancep. 118
The Rationality of the Partiesp. 123
The Reasoning Leading to the Two Principles of Justicep. 130
The Reasoning Leading to the Principle of Average Utilityp. 139
Some Difficulties with the Average Principlep. 144
Some Main Grounds for the Two Principles of Justicep. 153
Classical Utilitarianism, Impartiality, and Benevolencep. 160
Equal Libertyp. 171
The Four-Stage Sequencep. 171
The Concept of Libertyp. 176
Equal Liberty of Consciencep. 180
Toleration and the Common Interestp. 186
Toleration of the Intolerantp. 190
Political Justice and the Constitutionp. 194
Limitations on the Principle of Participationp. 200
The Rule of Lawp. 206
The Priority of Liberty Definedp. 214
The Kantian Interpretation of Justice as Fairnessp. 221
Distributive Sharesp. 228
The Concept of Justice in Political Economyp. 228
Some Remarks about Economic Systemsp. 234
Background Institutions for Distributive Justicep. 242
The Problem of Justice between Generationsp. 251
Time Preferencep. 259
Further Cases of Priorityp. 263
The Precepts of Justicep. 267
Legitimate Expectations and Moral Desertp. 273
Comparison with Mixed Conceptionsp. 277
The Principle of Perfectionp. 285
Duty and Obligationp. 293
The Arguments for the Principles of Natural Dutyp. 293
The Arguments for the Principle of Fairnessp. 301
The Duty to Comply with an Unjust Lawp. 308
The Status of Majority Rulep. 313
The Definition of Civil Disobediencep. 319
The Definition of Conscientious Refusalp. 323
The Justification of Civil Disobediencep. 326
The Justification of Conscientious Refusalp. 331
The Role of Civil Disobediencep. 335
Goodness as Rationalityp. 347
The Need for a Theory of the Goodp. 347
The Definition of Good for Simpler Casesp. 350
A Note on Meaningp. 355
The Definition of Good for Plans of Lifep. 358
Deliberative Rationalityp. 365
The Aristotelian Principlep. 372
The Definition of Good Applied to Personsp. 380
Self-Respect, Excellences, and Shamep. 386
Several Contrasts between the Right and the Goodp. 392
The Sense of Justicep. 397
The Concept of a Well-Ordered Societyp. 397
The Morality of Authorityp. 405
The Morality of Associationp. 409
The Morality of Principlesp. 414
Features of the Moral Sentimentsp. 420
The Connection between Moral and Natural Attitudesp. 425
The Principles of Moral Psychologyp. 429
The Problem of Relative Stabilityp. 434
The Basis of Equalityp. 441
The Good of Justicep. 450
Autonomy and Objectivityp. 450
The Idea of Social Unionp. 456
The Problem of Envyp. 464
Envy and Equalityp. 468
The Grounds for the Priority of Libertyp. 474
Happiness and Dominant Endsp. 480
Hedonism as a Method of Choicep. 486
The Unity of the Selfp. 491
The Good of the Sense of Justicep. 496
Concluding Remarks on Justificationp. 506
Conversion Tablep. 517
Indexp. 521
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