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Practical Recording Techniques

ISBN-10: 0672302659

ISBN-13: 9780672302657

Edition: N/A

Authors: Bruce Bartlett

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Book details

List price: $27.95
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 544
Language: English

Prefacep. xxv
Acknowledgmentsp. xxvii
The Recording Chainp. 1
Types of Recordingp. 2
Live Stereo Recordingp. 2
Recording with Several Mics and a Mixerp. 4
Multitrack Tape Recordingp. 4
Random-Access Multitrack Recordingp. 7
MIDI Sequencingp. 9
Pros and Cons of Each Methodp. 10
Editing/Masteringp. 11
Quality Levels of Recording Formatsp. 12
Equipping Your Studiop. 13
Low-Cost Recording Equipmentp. 14
Cassette Multitrackerp. 14
Digital Multitrackerp. 15
Multitrack Recording Softwarep. 15
MIDI/Digital-Audio Softwarep. 16
Effects Unitp. 16
Compressorp. 16
Two-Track Recorderp. 16
Editing Softwarep. 17
Monitor Systemp. 17
Microphonep. 17
Equipment Costsp. 18
Cassette Multitracker Studiop. 18
Digital Recorder--Mixer Studiop. 19
Computer Studiop. 19
MIDI Studiop. 19
Recording System for Classical Musicp. 20
Higher-Cost Recording Equipmentp. 21
Mixerp. 21
Multitrack Recordersp. 22
Hard-Disk Recorder--Mixer: 16 to 24 Tracksp. 24
Equipment Detailsp. 24
Cassette Multitrackerp. 24
Microphonesp. 28
Direct Boxp. 29
Monitor Systemp. 29
Effectsp. 30
Rack and Patch Bayp. 31
Miscellaneous Equipmentp. 31
Blank Recording Mediap. 31
MIDI Studio Equipmentp. 31
MIDI Controllerp. 31
Synthesizerp. 32
Sequencerp. 32
Samplerp. 32
Sound Modulep. 32
Drum Machinep. 33
Line Mixerp. 33
MIDI Interfacep. 33
MIDI Tape-Sync Boxp. 33
MIDI Softwarep. 33
Setting Up Your Studiop. 34
Cables and Equipment Connectorsp. 34
Cable Connectorsp. 36
Cable Typesp. 38
Rack/Patch Panelp. 39
Equipment Connectionsp. 39
Acoustic Treatmentp. 42
Sound, Signals, and Studio Acousticsp. 43
Sound Wave Creationp. 43
Characteristics of Sound Wavesp. 44
Amplitudep. 45
Wavelengthp. 45
Frequencyp. 45
Phase and Phase Shiftp. 45
Harmonicsp. 47
Envelopep. 48
Signal Characteristics of Audio Devicesp. 48
Frequency Responsep. 49
Noisep. 51
Distortionp. 51
Optimum Signal Levelp. 51
Signal-to-Noise Ratiop. 51
Headroomp. 52
Behavior of Sound in Roomsp. 53
Echoesp. 53
Reverberationp. 54
Leakagep. 55
How to Tame Echoes, Reverb, and Leakagep. 56
Controlling Room Problems with Recording Techniquesp. 56
Controlling Room Problems with Acoustic Treatmentsp. 56
Controlling Standing Wavesp. 59
Making a Quieter Studiop. 60
Monitoringp. 63
Speaker Requirementsp. 64
Nearfield Monitorsp. 65
Powered Monitorsp. 66
The Power Amplifierp. 67
Speaker Cables and Polarityp. 68
Control-Room Acousticsp. 68
Speaker Placementp. 70
Using the Monitorsp. 70
Headphonesp. 72
The Cue Systemp. 73
Conclusionp. 74
Hum Preventionp. 75
Grounding Definitionsp. 75
Preventing Hum Pickup in Audio Cablesp. 76
Electrostatic Interferencep. 76
Magnetic Interferencep. 77
Balanced and Unbalanced Linesp. 77
Preventing "Dirty" AC Powerp. 79
Preventing Ground Loopsp. 79
Isolate the Groundsp. 80
Connect Everything to the Same Groundp. 81
Break the Loopp. 81
Connect Shields to Grounded Chassisp. 82
Keep the Loop Area Smallp. 83
Prevent Ground Loops in Racksp. 83
Prevent Accidental Ground Loopsp. 85
Reducing Hum with Mics and Electric Guitarsp. 85
Microphone Hump. 85
Electric-Guitar Hump. 86
Reducing Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)p. 87
Special Considerations for On-Location Workp. 88
Power-Distribution Systemp. 88
Electric-Guitar Groundingp. 88
Interconnecting Multiple Sound Systemsp. 89
Special Considerations for Small Studiosp. 90
Special Considerations for Large Studiosp. 90
AC Power Wiringp. 90
Ground Wiringp. 91
Summaryp. 92
Hum-Fixing Checklistp. 93
Microphonesp. 95
Transducer Typesp. 95
General Traits of Each Transducer Typep. 97
Polar Patternp. 98
Traits of Different Polar Patternsp. 99
Frequency Responsep. 102
Impedance (Z)p. 104
Maximum SPLp. 104
Sensitivityp. 105
Self-Noisep. 105
Signal-to-Noise Ratiop. 106
Polarityp. 106
Special Microphone Typesp. 106
Boundary Microphonep. 106
Miniature Microphonep. 107
Stereo Microphonep. 108
Microphone Selectionp. 109
Mic Accessoriesp. 109
Pop Filtersp. 111
Stands and Boomsp. 111
Shock Mountsp. 111
Cables and Connectorsp. 111
Snakesp. 112
Splittersp. 112
Summaryp. 113
Microphone Technique Basicsp. 115
Which Mic Should I Use?p. 115
How Many Mics?p. 116
How Close Should I Place the Mic?p. 117
Reducing Leakagep. 119
Don't Mike Too Closep. 119
Where Should I Place the Mic?p. 120
On-Surface Techniquesp. 121
The Three-to-One Rulep. 123
Off-Axis Colorationp. 124
Stereo Mic Techniquesp. 124
Goals of Stereo Mikingp. 124
Types of Stereo Mic Techniquesp. 125
Coincident Pairp. 126
Spaced Pairp. 128
Near-Coincident Pairp. 129
Baffled Omni Pairp. 130
Comparing the Four Techniquesp. 131
Hardwarep. 132
How to Test Imagingp. 132
Microphone Techniquesp. 133
Electric Guitarp. 133
Miking the Ampp. 134
Recording Directp. 135
Electric Guitar Effectsp. 136
Electric Bassp. 136
Synthesizer, Drum Machine, Electric Pianop. 138
Leslie Organ Speakerp. 139
Drum Setp. 139
Tuningp. 140
Damping and Noise Controlp. 141
Drum Mikingp. 141
Drum Recording Tipsp. 147
Percussionp. 148
Acoustic Guitarp. 149
Singer/Guitaristp. 150
Grand Pianop. 151
Upright Pianop. 152
Acoustic Bassp. 153
Banjop. 155
Mandolin, Dobro, Bouzouki, Lap Dulcimerp. 155
Hammered Dulcimerp. 155
Fiddle (Violin)p. 156
String Sectionp. 156
String Quartetp. 156
Bluegrass Band, Old-Time String Bandp. 157
Harpp. 157
Hornsp. 157
Saxophonep. 158
Woodwindsp. 158
Harmonica, Accordion, Bagpipep. 159
Lead Vocalp. 159
Miking Distancep. 160
Breath Popsp. 161
Wide Dynamic Rangep. 161
Sibilancep. 162
Reflections from the Music Stand and Ceilingp. 162
Vocal Effectsp. 162
Background Vocalsp. 163
Summaryp. 164
Analog Tape Recordingp. 165
Tape Recorder Parts and Functionsp. 165
The Headsp. 166
The Electronicsp. 167
The Tape Transportp. 168
Tracksp. 169
Tape Widthp. 169
Cassette Deckp. 171
Multitrack and Synchronous Recordingp. 171
Overdubbingp. 172
Meters and Level Settingp. 172
Judging Machine Specificationsp. 174
Operating Precautionsp. 174
Noise Reductionp. 174
dbxp. 175
Dolbyp. 176
Preventive Maintenancep. 178
Cleaning the Tape Pathp. 178
Demagnetizing the Tape Pathp. 178
Alignment and Calibration for a Cassette Deckp. 179
Alignment and Calibration for Professional Tape Machinesp. 180
Using Magnetic Tapep. 182
Editing and Leaderingp. 182
Reducing Print-Throughp. 186
Tape Handling and Storagep. 186
Digital Recording and Editingp. 189
Analog versus Digitalp. 189
Digital Recordingp. 190
The Clockp. 192
Digital Audio Signal Formatsp. 192
Converting Signal Formatsp. 193
Ditherp. 193
Jitterp. 194
Digital Transfers or Copiesp. 195
DATp. 196
DAT Tapep. 197
DAT Subcodesp. 198
DAT Featuresp. 198
DAT Indicatorsp. 199
DAT Controlsp. 199
The Digital Audio Workstationp. 200
DAW Functionsp. 204
Optimizing Your Computer for Digital Audiop. 206
CD Recordablep. 210
CD-R Formatsp. 210
CD-R Technologyp. 211
CD-R Sessions, Disc-at-Once, Track-at-Oncep. 212
How to Use a Standalone CD-R Writerp. 213
How to Use a Computer CD-R Recorderp. 214
CD-R Recording Settingsp. 215
MDM: Modular Digital Multitrackp. 216
Random-Access Multitracksp. 217
Random-Access Units versus MDMsp. 217
Computer DAWp. 218
Hard Disk (HD) Recorderp. 219
MO Recorderp. 219
HD Recorder-Mixerp. 219
MiniDisc Recorder-Mixerp. 221
Portable IC Recorderp. 225
Backupp. 226
Digital Recording Optionsp. 226
Signal Processors and Effectsp. 229
Equalizerp. 229
Types of EQp. 230
How to Use EQp. 233
When to Use EQp. 235
Uses of EQp. 236
Compressorp. 238
Using a Compressorp. 239
Connecting a Compressorp. 241
Limiterp. 241
Noise Gatep. 242
Delay: Echo, Doubling, Chorus, Flangingp. 243
Echop. 243
Doublingp. 245
Chorusp. 245
Flangingp. 246
Reverberationp. 247
Enhancerp. 249
Octave Dividerp. 249
Harmonizerp. 249
Preverbp. 249
Tube Processorp. 250
Rotary Speaker Simulatorp. 250
Analog Tape Simulatorp. 250
Spatial Processorp. 251
Microphone Simulatorp. 251
Guitar Amp Simulatorp. 251
Multi-Effects Processorp. 251
Software (Plug-In) Effectsp. 252
Looking Backp. 253
Sound-Quality Glossaryp. 253
Recorder--Mixers and Mixing Consolesp. 259
Stages of Recordingp. 259
Mixer Functionsp. 260
Inputs and Outputsp. 260
Input Modulesp. 261
Input Connectorsp. 262
Phantom Powerp. 263
Input Selectorp. 263
Mic Preampp. 264
Trim (Gain)p. 264
Input Fader (Channel Fader)p. 264
Direct Outp. 265
EQ (Equalization)p. 265
Assign Switchp. 265
Pan Potp. 266
Aux (Effects or FX)p. 266
Insert Jacksp. 268
Output Sectionp. 268
Mixing Circuits (Active Combining Networks)p. 269
Master and Submaster Fadersp. 269
Metersp. 270
Tape-Out Jacksp. 270
Monitor Sectionp. 271
Monitor Select Buttonsp. 271
Mixing-Console Styles: Split versus In-Linep. 272
Additional Features Found in Mixing Consolesp. 272
Digital Mixersp. 275
Digital Mixer Featuresp. 275
Operating the Multitrack Recorder and Mixerp. 277
Session Preparationp. 277
Recordingp. 278
Assign Signals to Channelsp. 279
Set Recording Levelsp. 279
Set EQp. 281
Recordingp. 281
Overdubbingp. 281
Punching Inp. 283
Composite Tracksp. 284
Bouncing Tracksp. 285
Flying Inp. 286
Drum Replacementp. 287
Mixdownp. 287
Set up the Mixer and Recordersp. 287
Erase Unwanted Materialp. 288
Panningp. 289
Compressionp. 289
Set a Balancep. 290
Set EQp. 291
Add Effectsp. 291
Set Levelsp. 292
Judging the Mixp. 292
Changes during the Mixp. 293
Calibration Tonesp. 294
Record the Mixp. 294
Summaryp. 295
Recordingp. 295
Overdubbingp. 296
Mixdownp. 296
Automatic Mixingp. 296
Session Proceduresp. 299
Preproductionp. 300
Instrumentationp. 300
Recording Orderp. 300
Track Assignmentsp. 301
Session Sheetp. 301
Production Schedulep. 301
Track Sheetp. 302
Microphone Input Listp. 304
Instrument Layout Chartp. 304
Setting Up the Studiop. 305
Setting Up the Control Roomp. 305
Session Overviewp. 307
Recordingp. 307
Overdubbingp. 308
Composite Tracksp. 308
Drum Overdubsp. 308
Overdubbing in the Control Roomp. 309
Breaking Downp. 309
Mixdownp. 309
Assembling Analog-Tape Master Reelsp. 310
Sequencing the Songsp. 310
Leader Lengthp. 310
Master-Reel Assemblyp. 311
Digitally Editing and Mastering Your Mixesp. 311
Transferring the Edited Program to DAT or CD-Rp. 313
Logp. 315
Recording the Spoken Wordp. 317
Be Consistentp. 317
Microphonesp. 318
Mic Placementp. 319
Minimizing Sound Reflectionsp. 319
Reducing Sibilancep. 320
At the Sessionp. 321
Digital Editingp. 321
Proof CD-Rs and Insertsp. 323
Sound Effects and Musicp. 323
Backtiming a Musical Outrop. 324
The MIDI Studio: Equipment and Proceduresp. 325
MIDI-Studio Componentsp. 326
The Keyboard Workstationp. 330
MIDI Recording Proceduresp. 330
Recording with a Polyphonic Synthesizerp. 331
Recording with a Multitimbral Synthesizerp. 334
Recording with a Keyboard Workstationp. 338
Recording with a Drum Machine and Synthesizerp. 340
Recording with a MIDI System plus Tape Syncp. 344
Recording with a MIDI/Digital Audio Recording Systemp. 348
Using Effectsp. 349
Automated Mixingp. 350
Types of Automation Systemsp. 350
Storing Mix Movesp. 353
Snapshot versus Continuous Automationp. 353
Controlsp. 353
Automated Mixing Procedurep. 353
Simulating Automation with MIDIp. 354
On-Location Recording of Popular Musicp. 355
Two Mics Out Frontp. 356
Equipmentp. 356
Mic Placementp. 356
Recordingp. 357
Recording from the PA Mixerp. 358
Drawbacksp. 359
Taping with a 4-Trackerp. 359
Recording Off the PA Mixer Aux Outputsp. 360
Feeding the PA Mixer Insert Sends to a Modular Digital Multitrackp. 361
Connectionsp. 362
Monitor Mixp. 362
Setting Levelsp. 363
Mixdownp. 363
Feeding PA Mixer Direct Outs or Insert Sends to a Recording Mixerp. 363
Splitting the Microphonesp. 364
Multitrack Recording in a Vanp. 365
Preparing for the Sessionp. 365
Preproduction Meetingp. 365
Site Surveyp. 366
Mic Listp. 367
Track Sheetp. 368
Block Diagramp. 369
Equipment Listp. 370
Preparing for Easier Setupp. 370
Protective Casesp. 371
Mic Mountsp. 371
Snakes and Cablesp. 372
Rack Wiringp. 373
Other Tipsp. 373
At the Session: Setupp. 374
Power Distribution Systemp. 375
Power Sourcep. 375
Interconnecting Multiple Sound Systemsp. 376
Connectionsp. 378
Running Cablesp. 378
Recording-Console Setupp. 378
Mic Techniquesp. 379
Electric Guitar Groundingp. 380
Audience Microphonesp. 381
Setting Levels and Submixesp. 382
Recordingp. 383
Teardownp. 384
On-Location Recording of Classical Musicp. 385
Equipmentp. 385
The 2-Track Recorderp. 386
Microphonesp. 386
Monitorsp. 387
Mic Cablesp. 388
Mic Preamp or Mixerp. 388
Stereo Microphone Techniquesp. 388
Preparing for the Sessionp. 390
Session Setupp. 390
Microphone Placementp. 391
Distancep. 391
Stereo-Spread Controlp. 392
Soloist Pickup and Spot Microphonesp. 392
Recordingp. 393
Editingp. 394
Judging Sound Qualityp. 395
Classical versus Popular Recordingp. 395
Good Sound in a Pop-Music Recordingp. 396
A Good Mixp. 397
Wide Rangep. 397
Good Tonal Balancep. 398
Clean Soundp. 399
Clarityp. 399
Smoothnessp. 399
Presencep. 399
Spaciousnessp. 400
Sharp Transientsp. 400
Tight Bass and Drumsp. 400
Wide and Detailed Stereo Imagingp. 400
Wide but Controlled Dynamic Rangep. 401
Interesting Soundsp. 402
Suitable Productionp. 402
Good Sound in a Classical-Music Recordingp. 402
Good Acousticsp. 403
A Natural Balancep. 403
Tonal Accuracyp. 403
Suitable Perspectivep. 403
Accurate Imagingp. 404
Training Your Hearingp. 404
Troubleshooting Bad Soundp. 406
Bad Sound on All Recordingsp. 407
Bad Sound on Playback Onlyp. 407
Bad Sound in a Pop Music Recording Sessionp. 408
Bad Sound in a Classical Music Recording Sessionp. 415
Surround Sound: Techniques and Mediap. 419
Surround Speaker Arrangementp. 420
Setting Up a Surround Monitoring Systemp. 422
Surround Mixing Equipmentp. 422
Bass Managementp. 423
Connectionsp. 424
Calibrationp. 425
Recording and Mixing Pop Music for Surroundp. 427
Panningp. 427
Using the Center Speakerp. 428
Using the LFE Channelp. 429
Downmixingp. 429
Surround-Sound Mic Techniquesp. 429
Soundfield 5.1 Microphone Systemp. 430
Delos VR[superscript 2] Surround Miking Methodp. 430
NHK Methodp. 430
The KFM 360 Surround Systemp. 431
Five-Channel Microphone Array with Binaural Headp. 433
DMP Methodp. 434
Woszcyk Technique (PZM Wedge plus Opposite-Polarity, 180-Degree Coincident-Cardioid Surround Mics)p. 434
Williams Five-Cardioid Mic Arrayp. 436
Double MS Techniquep. 436
Surround Ambience Microphone (SAM) Arrayp. 436
SPL Atmos 5.1/ASM 5 Surround Recording Systemp. 437
The Holophonep. 437
Stereo Pair plus Surround Pairp. 438
Surround Mediap. 438
Compact Discp. 438
Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)p. 439
Super Audio CDp. 442
Encoding Surround for Release on Various Formatsp. 442
Surround Encoding for CDp. 443
Surround Encoding for DVD-Videop. 444
Surround Encoding for DVD-Audiop. 444
Summary of Media Formatsp. 444
Encoding Hardware and Software for CD and DVD-Videop. 444
DVD Premastering Formatsp. 445
Dolby Units for DVD Masteringp. 446
Putting Your Music on the Webp. 449
Streaming versus Downloadingp. 449
Data Compressionp. 450
Web-Related Audio Filesp. 450
What You Needp. 452
How to Upload MP3 Filesp. 453
Putting Your Music on Your Web Sitep. 455
Putting MP3 Files on Your Sitep. 455
Putting RealAudio Files on Your Sitep. 456
Streaming Audio from a RealServer Sitep. 458
Sample Web Pagep. 462
Liquid Audio (www.liquidaudio.com)p. 462
Music: Why You Recordp. 463
Increasing Your Involvement in Musicp. 464
Different Ways of Listeningp. 464
Two Different Production Stylesp. 465
Why Record?p. 466
dB or Not dBp. 467
Definitionsp. 467
Sound Pressure Levelp. 467
Signal Levelp. 468
dBmp. 469
dBv or dBup. 470
dBVp. 471
Change in Signal Levelp. 471
The VU Meter, Zero VU, and Peak Indicatorsp. 472
Balanced versus Unbalanced Equipment Levelsp. 474
Interfacing Balanced and Unbalanced Equipmentp. 474
Microphone Sensitivityp. 475
Introduction to SMPTE Time Codep. 477
How the Time Code Worksp. 477
Time-Code Signal Detailsp. 478
Drop-Frame Modep. 479
Setting Up a Time-Code Systemp. 480
How to Use SMPTE Time Codep. 482
Restriping Defective Codep. 482
Audio-for-Video SMPTE Applicationsp. 483
Synchronizing to Videop. 483
The Audio-Tape Synchronization Procedurep. 484
The Film/Video Soundtrack Programp. 484
Digital Audio Editingp. 485
Other Time-Code Applicationsp. 486
Further Educationp. 489
Booksp. 489
Recording Magazinesp. 489
Pro Audio Magazinesp. 491
Consumer Audio Magazinesp. 492
Guides, Brochures, and Other Literaturep. 492
Guides to Recording Schoolsp. 493
The Internetp. 493
Recording Equipment Catalogsp. 493
Impedancep. 495
What is impedance?p. 495
I'm connecting two audio devices. Is it important to match their impedances? What if I don't?p. 495
How do I know what a microphone's impedance is?p. 497
I'm connecting a mic to a mixer. Is impedance a consideration?p. 497
How about speaker impedance?p. 498
Should I consider impedance when I connect two line-level devices?p. 498
Can I connect one source to two or more loads?p. 498
Can I connect two or more sources to one input?p. 499
Summaryp. 499
Impedance Technical Detailsp. 499
Glossaryp. 501
Indexp. 543
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