Ronald G. Witt is Professor of History, Emeritus, at Duke University.
Contents Introduction: Defining the Humanities and Cultural Roots for the Twenty-first Century Controversies Development of the Western Humanities The Humanities Today The Interdisciplinary Humanities Culture and Cultural Roots VI. Renaissance and Reformation: Fusion of the Roots 17. Humanism and the Early Italian Renaissance Beginnings of the Modern World Daily Lives: Marriage in Renaissance Florence Reading Selections. Francesco Petrarch, From the Rime Sparse. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, From the Oration on the Dignity of Man. Laura Cereta, Letter to Bibulus Sempronius: Defense of the Liberal Instruction of Women 18. Art, Architecture, and Music in Florence The City of Florence Florentine Architecture Sculpture in Florence in the Fifteenth Century New Developments in Painting Lorenzo de' Medici's Carnivals Music for the Death of Lorenzo Reading Selection. Angelo Poliziano, Quis Dabit Capiti 19. The End of the Florentine Renaissance: Machiavelli, Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael Niccolograve; Machiavelli The Renaissance Artist Daily Lives: A Renaissance Banquet Reading Selection. Niccolograve; Machiavelli, From The Prince 20. The Northern Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation Erasmus The Protestant Reformation Reform and Counter-Reform Economic Expansion Cultural Relativism William Shakespeare and the Late Renaissance Daily Lives: Theatergoing in Shakespeare's Time Reading Selections. Desiderius Erasmus, From The Praise of Folly. Michel de Montaigne, From the Essays: Of Cannibals. William Shakespeare, From the Sonnets. William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Othello, The Moor of Venice Continuities: Renaissance and Reformation VII. Science and Splendor: The Seventeenth Century 21. The Consolidation of Modernity Daily Lives: Sufferings of Ordinary People in the Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War and Its Aftermath The Scientific Revolution Economic Life The Age of Absolutism Reading Selections. Reneacute; Descartes, From the Discourse on Method. John Locke, From the Second Treatise Concerning Government 22. The Baroque Style in Art and Literature Baroque in the Visual Arts Baroque Painting Baroque Architecture and Sculpture in Rome: Gian Lorenzo Bernini Literary Baroque Reading Selections. Saint Teresa of Avila, From The Book of Her Life. Sor Juana Ineacute;s de la Cruz, Saacute;tira filosoacute;fica/A Philosophical Satire; Soneto sobre un retrato de siacute; misma/Sonnet on a Portrait of Herself; Que contiene una fantasiacute;a contenta con amor decente/Which Recounts How Fantasy Contents Itself with Honorable Love. Richard Crashaw, From The Flaming Heart. John Donne, Sonnet 14 of the Holy Sonnets; Elegy XIX: To His Mistress Going to Bed. 23. Two Masters of Baroque Music: Handel and Bach George Frederick Handel: Messiah Johann Sebastian Bach: Christmas Oratorio and Toccata and Fugue in D Minor 24. The Arts at the Court of Louis XIV Louis XIV and Absolutism Versailles French Court Ballet and the Origins of Modern Theatrical Dancing Daily Lives: Dancing French Neoclassical Drama Marie de la Vergne de La Fayette and the Origins of the Modern Novel Reading Selections. Moliegrave;re, The Would-Be Gentleman. Marie de la Vergne de La Fayette, From The Princess of Clegrave;ves Continuities: The Seventeenth Century VIII. Reason, Revolution, Romanticism: The Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries 25. The European Enlightenment A Prerevolutionary Movement Aspects of Painting in the Enlightenment Reading Selections. Voltaire, From Candide. Voltaire, From the Philosophical Dictionary. Montesquieu, From The Spirit of the Laws. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, From The Social Contract. Mary Wollstonecraft, From A Vindication of the Rights of Woman 26. The Enlightenment in the United States American Religion The American Revolution European Influences American Federalism Daily Lives: Education in a Moravian School for Girls From European Classicism to "An American Style" African-American Voices in the Enlightenment Reading Selections. Jonathan Edwards, From A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God. Thomas Jefferson, The Virginia Statute of Religious Liberty. Phillis Wheatley, From Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. David Walker, From David Walker's Appeal in Four Articles, Together with a Preamble, to the Coloured Citizens of the World 27. The Classical Style in Music, the Development of Opera, and Mozart's Don Giovanni Opera The Don Juan Theme Don Giovanni: The Rake Punished 28. Romanticism: Revolution, Individualism, Nature, and Love The French Revolution The Art of the French Revolution: Jacques-Louis David Romanticism: A Revolutionary Movement Enlightened Ideas, Romantic Style Friedrich Schiller, Hymn to Joy Individualism and the Romantic Hero Nature and "Natural People" Influence of Rousseau Nature in Poetry, Music, and Art Art: Revolution, Individualism, and Nature The Romantic Woman and Romantic Love Daily Lives: Women's Fashion and Romantic Revolt Reading Selections. William Wordsworth, From The Prelude; The Solitary Reaper. George Gordon, Lord Byron, Prometheus; On This Day I Complete My Thirty-sixth Year. John Keats, Ode to a Nightingale. Percy Bysshe Shelley, Lines: When the Lamp Is Shattered; Ozymandias. Walt Whitman, From Song of Myself. Emily Dickinson, Selected Poems Continuities: From the Enlightenment to Romanticism IX. Industrialism and the Humanities: The Middle and Late Nineteenth Century 29. The Industrial Revolution and New Social Thought Britain in the Lead Karl Marx Material Progress Daily Lives: The Lives of the Urban Poor Under the Industrial Revolution Liberalism Slavery and the Abolitionist Movement Women's Rights Movements Reading Selections. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, From The Communist Manifesto. The "Declaration of Sentiments" of the Seneca Falls Convention. John Stuart Mill, From The Subjection of Women. Fredrick Douglass, From "What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?": An Address Delivered in Rochester, New York, on 5 July 1852 30. Art and Literature in the Industrial World: Realism and Beyond Architecture Painting: Realism Photography Realism in Literature The Poet and the City: Charles Baudelaire Late-Nineteenth-Century Thinkers and Writers From Realism to Symbolism in Painting Post Impressionism and Symbolism Reading Selections. Charles Dickens, From The Old Curiosity Shop. Charles Baudelaire, From Les Fleurs du Mal/The Flowers of Evil; The Swan; From Poems in Prose (The Spleen of Paris). Friedrich Nietzsche, Excerpts. Fyodor Dostoevsky, From Notes from Underground Continuities: Industrialism and the Humanities X. Discontinuities: The Early Twentieth Century 31. A Culture in Self-Doubt Scientific Developments Racism and Colonialism World War I and Its Aftermath Daily Lives: Life in the Trenches Sigmund Freud The Postwar Decades Reading Selections. Wilfred Owen, Dulca et decorum est; Strange Meeting. Ezra Pouond, From Hugh Selwyn Mauberly. Rudyard Kipling, Recessional. Mohandas ("Mahatma") Gandhi, From Letter to Lord Irwin; From