Ian Budge is a research profesor in the Department of Government at the University of Essex. He has made major contributions both to cumulative research on democracy and to organizational developments in the discipline.ï¿½His earliest research on Glasgow and Belfast focused on causes of democratic breakdown.ï¿½After a period of studying elections, voting behavior, and party competition, he turned to public policy and how it might become responsive to popular preferences& mdash;a central democratic dilemma.ï¿½His research covers both direct and representative democracy.Sir Ivor Crewe is the master of University College, Oxford. He is a former vice-chancellor of the University of Essex and president of Universities UK. His work concerns British politics, especially elections, parties, and public opinion. He directed the British Election Study from 1973 to 1981 and has edited the British Journal of Political Science.Dennis J. Farlie is a mathematical statistician who has served a director of the ESRC Social Science Data Archive at the University of Essex and chairman of its Department of Mathematics. He has collaborated with Ian Budge on several applications of Bayesian statistics to political science data, covering voting, election predictions, and political careers.