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Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking

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ISBN-10: 0534626637

ISBN-13: 9780534626631

Edition: 5th 2007 (Revised)

Authors: Merrilee H. Salmon

List price: $207.95
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This text offers a balanced treatment of reasoning in ordinary language and formal techniques that enhance understanding of reasoning. The text begins with an extensive treatment of inductive reasoning that includes inductive generalizations and causal arguments. Since students are already familiar with these types of arguments in everyday life, they can appreciate the point of studying them in a systematic way. The text contains many timely features, lively and straightforward prose, and numerous examples and exercises drawn from many areas of knowledge. It combines a sensitive treatment of ordinary language arguments with a simple but rigorous exposition of basic principles of logic.
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Book details

List price: $207.95
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 3/23/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 512
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.430

Merrilee Salmon is Professor Emeritus in the Department of the History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh.

Preface
Introduction to Arguments
Introduction
Arguments
Recognizing Arguments
Extended Arguments
Reconstructing Arguments
Review
Paying Special Attention to the Language of Arguments
Introduction
Ambiguity
Vagueness
Definitions
Use and Mention
Review
Deductive Arguments, Inductive Arguments, and Fallacies
Introduction
Deductive Arguments
Inductive Arguments
Fallacies
Review
A Closer Look At Inductive Arguments
Introduction
Statistical Syllogisms
Arguments from analogy
Arguments Based on samples
Extended Inductive Arguments
Pro and Con Arguments
Review
Causal Arguments
Introduction
Mill's Methods for Establishing Casual Claim
Controlled Experiments
Hume's Analysis of Causation
Casual Fallacies
Review
Probabilities and Inductive Logic
Introduction
The Rules of Probability
Using Probabilities to Plan a Course of Action-Decision The ory
Review
Confirmation of Hypotheses
Hypotheses
The Hypothetico-Deductive Method
Complexities in the Hypothetico-Deductive Method
Incremental Confirmation and "Absolute" Confirmation
Disconfirmation
Bayesian Confirmation
Review
Deductive Reasoning?Sentential Logic
Introduction
Properties of Deductive Arguments: Validity and the Importance of Logical Form
Conditional Sentences
Two Conditional Argument Forms
Fallacies Associated with these Conditional Forms
Additional Forms of Sentential Arguments
Symbolizing Connectives
Symbolizing English Sentences
Determining the Truth Values of Compound Sentence Forms Determining the Validity of Invalidity of Argument Forms
Taulologies, Self-Contradictions, and Contingent Sentences
Review
Categorical Syllogisms
Introduction
Categorical Sentences
Translating English Sentences Into Standard Categorical Forms
Testing for Validity with Venn Diagrams
Distribution of Terms-Fallacies of Distribution
Other Ways to test the Validity of Syllogisms
Reducing the Number of Terms in Syllogisms
Reconstructing Ordinary-Language Arguments as Syllogisms
Quasi Syllogism and Sorites
Review
Arguments In Which Validity Depends On Relationships
Introduction
Examples of Relational Arguments
Important Properties of Relationships
Using Quantifiers to Express Relationships
Symbolizing Arguments
Review
Appendix One: Proof Method for Truth-Functional Logic
Appendix Two: Index of Fallacies
Bibliography
Solutions to Even-numbered Exercises
Index