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Color of Justice Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America

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ISBN-10: 0534624464

ISBN-13: 9780534624460

Edition: 4th 2007 (Revised)

Authors: Samuel Walker, Cassia Spohn, Miriam Delone

List price: $145.95
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Comprehensive and balanced, THE COLOR OF JUSTICE is the definitive book on current research and theories of racial, ethnic, and gender discrimination within America's Criminal Justice system. The authors synthesize the best and the most recent research on patterns of criminal behavior and victimization, police practices, court processing and sentencing, the death penalty, and correctional programs, giving students the facts and theoretical foundation they need to make their own informed decisions about discrimination in the system. Uniquely unbiased, THE COLOR OF JUSTICE makes every effort to incorporate discussion of all major race groups found in the United States.
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Book details

List price: $145.95
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 8/7/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 480
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.342
Language: English

Samuel Walker is Professor Emeritus of Criminal Justice at the University of Nebraska, Omaha, where he taught for 31 years before retiring in 2005. He is the author of 13 books on policing, criminal justice history and policy, and civil liberties. His current research involves police accountability, focusing primarily on citizen oversight of the police and police Early Intervention Systems (EIS) systems. Originally trained as a historian, he is completing a book on U.S. presidents and civil liberties. His personal web site, with information on police accountability is

Cassia Spohn is Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University. She has published extensively on prosecutors? charging decisions in sexual assault cases, the effect of race, ethnicity, and gender on sentencing decisions, sentencing of drug offenders, and the deterrent effect of imprisonment. She is currently conducting a National Institute of Justice-funded study of police and prosecutorial decision making in sexual assault cases in Los Angeles.

Race, Ethnicity, and Crime: The Present Crisis
The Scope of This Book
Objectives of the Book
Goals of the Chapter
The Colors of America: Racial and Ethnic Categories
Racial and Ethnic Categories
The Politics of Racial and Ethnic Labels
The Quality of Criminal Justice Data on Race and Ethnicity
The Geography of Racial and Ethnic Justice
Disparity versus Discrimination
The Law of Discrimination
The Discrimination-Disparity Continuum
A Theoretical Perspective on Race, Ethnicity, and Crime
Alternative Theories
Discussion Questions
Victims and Offenders: Myths and Realities About Crime
Goals of the Chapter
A Broader Picture of the Crime Victim
The National Crime Victimization Survey
Household Victimization
Personal Victimization
Trends in Household and Personal Victimization
Lifetime Likelihood of Victimization
Homicide Victimization
Summary: A More Comprehensive Picture of the Crime Victim
Picture of the Typical Offender
Official Arrest Statistics
Perceptions of Offenders by Victims
Self-Report Surveys
Summary: A Picture of the Typical Criminal Offender
Crime as an Intraracial Event
National Crime Victimization Survey
Uniform Crime Report Homicide Reports
Crime as an Interracial (Hate) Event
Ethnic Youth Gangs
Gang Myths and Realities
Varieties of Ethnic Gangs
Discussion Questions
Race, Ethnicity, Social Structure, and Crime
The Images from Hurricane Katrina
Two Societies?
Goals of the Chapter
Economic Inequality
Poverty Status
Insurance Coverage
Social Capital and Cultural Capital
Progress, Stagnation, or Regression? The Debate over the Status of African Americans
The Debate over the Underclass
Community Social Structure
Residential Segregation
Theoretical Perspectives on Inequality and Crime
Social Strain Theory
Differential Association Theory
Social Disorganization Theory
Culture Conflict Theory
Conflict Theory
Routine Activity Theory
The Limits of Current Theories
Inequality and Social Reform
The Impact of the Civil Rights Movement
The Attack on Economic Inequality
Discussion Questions
Justice on the Street? The Police and Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Unequal Justice?
Complex and Ambiguous Evidence
Goals of the Chapter
A Contextual Approach
A Long History of Conflict
The Police and a Changing America
Public Attitudes About the Police
The Impact of Police Officer Conduct
Policing Racial and Ethnic Minority Communities
The African American Community
The Hispanic Community
The Native American Community
The Middle Eastern Community
Police Use of Deadly Force
Disparity versus Discrimination in Police Shootings
Controlling Police Shootings
"Police Brutality": Police Use of Physical Force
Discrimination in Arrests?
Zero-Tolerance Policing
Traffic Stops: Racial Profiling
The Use of Race in Law Enforcement
Profiling Contexts
The Data on Traffic Stops
Interpreting Traffic Stop Data
Eliminating Bias in Traffic Enforcement
The PERF Policy on Traffic Enforcement
A Success Story: The Customs Bureau
Street Stops and Frisks
Special Issue: Stereotyping and Routine Police Work
Verbal Abuse
Police Officer Attitudes and Behavior
Police Corruption and People of Color
Police-Community Relations Programs
Special Units
Community Policing
Responding to Specific Community Concerns
Reduce Officer Misconduct
Ensuring Cultural Competence
Citizen Complaints Against the Police
Citizen Oversight of the Police
Police Employment Practices
Trends in African American and Hispanic Employment
The Law of Employment Discrimination
Discrimination in Assignment
The Impact of Diversity
People of Color as Supervisors and Chief Executives
Discussion Questions
The Courts: A Quest for Justice During the Pretrial Process
The Situation Today
Goals of the Chapter
Decisions Regarding Counsel and Bail
Racial Minorities and the Right to Counsel
Racial Minorities and Bail Decisionmaking
Charging and Plea Bargaining Decisions
Prosecutors' Charging Decisions
Race and Plea Bargaining Decisions
Discussion Questions
Justice on the Bench? Trial and Adjudication in Criminal Court
Goals of the Chapter
Selection of the Jury Pool
Techniques for Increasing Racial Diversity
The Peremptory Challenge: Racial Profiling in the Courtroom?
The Supreme Court and the Peremptory Challenge: From Swain to Batson
Playing the "Race Card" in a Criminal Trial
Race-Conscious Jury Nullification: Black Power in the Courtroom?
Discussion Questions
Race and Sentencing: In Search of Fairness and Justice
Goals of the Chapter
Racial Disparity in Sentencing
Four Explanations for Racial Disparities in Sentencing
Empirical Research on Race and Sentencing
Reviews of Recent Research
When Does Race/Ethnicity Matter?
Race/Ethnicity and Sentencing: Direct and Indirect Effects
Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Age, and Employment: A Volatile Combination?
Differential Treatment of Interracial and Intraracial Sexual Assault
The Effect of Race on Sentencing for Various Types of Crimes
Sentencing and the War on Drugs
Sentencing Reform: The Quest for a "Just" Punishment System
Challenges to the Indeterminate Sentence
Race/Ethnicity and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines
Race/Ethnicity and State Sentencing Reforms
Have Sentencing Guidelines Increased the Likelihood of Racial Discrimination?
Discussion Questions
The Color of Death: Race and the Death Penalty
Goals of the Chapter
The Constitutionality of the Death Penalty
Furman v. Georgia
Post-Furman Decisions
Attitudes Toward Capital Punishment
Race and the Death Penalty: The Empirical Evidence
Statistical Evidence of Racial Disparity
Pre-Furman Studies
Post-Gregg Studies
Race and the Federal Capital Sentencing Process
Explanations for Disparate Treatment
McCleskey v. Kemp: The Supreme Court and Racial
Discrimination in the Application of the Death Penalty
The Aftermath of McCleskey: Calls for Reform or Abolition of the Death Penalty
The Death Penalty in the 21st Century
The Movement to Reform the Death Penalty
The Movement to Abolish the Death Penalty
Discussion Questions
Corrections in America: A Colorful Portrait: Corrections vs. College: Minorities in Society
Goals of the Chapter
The Incarcerated: Prison and Jail Populations
Minority Overrepresentation
Race, Ethnicity, and Recidivism
Historical Trends
Impact of the War on Drugs
Incarceration Rates
Jails and Minorities
The Role of Jail
Minority Overrepresentation
Community Corrections
Parole: Early Release from Prison
Success and Failure on Parole
Probation: A Case of Sentencing Discrimination?
Community Corrections: A Native American Example
Theoretical Perspectives on the Racial Distribution of Correctional Populations
Adjustment to Prison
Prison Gangs
Women in Prison
Discussion Questions
Minority Youth and Crime: Minority Youth in Court
Goals of the Chapter
Young Racial Minorities as Victims and Offenders
Juveniles as Victims of Crime
Juveniles as Offenders
Juveniles of Color and the Police
Race/Ethnicity and the Juvenile Justice System
Race/Ethnicity and Juvenile Court Outcomes in Five Jurisdictions
Transfer of Juveniles to Criminal Court
Explaining Disparate Treatment of Juvenile Offenders
Juveniles Under Correctional Supervision
Discussion Questions
The Color of Justice
Race, Crime, and Justice
Selected Bibliography