Philip J. Adler taught college courses in world history to undergraduates for almost thirty years prior to his recent retirement. Dr. Adler earned his Ph.D. at the University of Vienna following military service overseas in the 1950s. His dissertation was on the activity of the South Slav ?migr?s during World War I, and his academic specialty was the modern history of Eastern Europe and the Austro-Hungarian empire. His research has been supported by Fulbright and the National Endowment for the Humanities grants. Adler has published widely in the historical journals of the U.S. and German-speaking Europe. He is currently professor emeritus at East Carolina University, where he spent most of his teaching career.