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Sociology Understanding a Diverse Society

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ISBN-10: 0534566650

ISBN-13: 9780534566654

Edition: 2001

Authors: Margaret L. Andersen, Howard Francis Taylor

List price: $57.95
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Andersen & Taylor is a theoretically balanced, mainstream, brief text characterized by its emphasis on diversity. In every chapter, students explore research and data that illustrate how class, race-ethnicity, gender, age, geographic residence, and sexual orientation relate to the topics covered. This text provides a solid research orientation to the basic principles of sociology while maintaining an accessible style, appealing to the ever-changing student population, and inviting students to view the world through a sociological lens. This highly integrated, research-oriented, contemporary example approach combined with its depth of coverage in a brief-text format accounts for its wide…    
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Book details

List price: $57.95
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 7/27/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 483
Size: 8.00" wide x 10.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.980
Language: English

Margaret L. Andersen (B.A., Georgia State University; M.A., Ph.D. University of Massachusetts, Amherst) is the Edward F. and Elizabeth Goodman Rosenberg Professor of Sociology at the University of Delaware, where she has also served in several senior administrative positions, including most recently as Vice Provost for Faculty Affairs and Diversity. She holds secondary appointments in Black American Studies and Women and Gender Studies. She is the author of several books, including (among others) THINKING ABOUT WOMEN, recently published in its tenth edition; the best-selling anthology, RACE, CLASS, AND GENDER (co-edited with Patricia Hill Collins, now in its ninth edition); LIVING ART: THE…    

Howard F. Taylor has taught at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Syracuse University, and Princeton University, where he is presently Professor of Sociology and former director of the African American Studies Center. He has published over fifty articles in sociology, education, social psychology, and race relations. His books include THE IQ GAME (Rutgers University Press), a critique of hereditarian accounts of intelligence; BALANCE IN SMALL GROUPS (Van Nostrand Reinhold), translated into Japanese; and the forthcoming RACE AND CLASS AND THE BELL CURVE IN AMERICA. He has appeared widely before college, radio, and TV audiences, including ABC's NIGHTLINE. Past president of the Eastern…    

Introducing the Sociological Imagination
Sociological Perspectives and Sociological Researchp. 1
What Is Sociology?p. 3
The Sociological Perspectivep. 3
Debunking in Sociologyp. 6
Discovering Unsettling Factsp. 7
Key Sociological Conceptsp. 9
The Significance of Diversityp. 9
Diversity: A Source of Changep. 9
Society in Global Perspectivep. 11
The Development of Sociological Theoryp. 13
The Influence of the Enlightenmentp. 13
Classical Sociological Theoryp. 14
Sociology in Americap. 16
Theoretical Frameworks: Functionalism, Conflict Theory, and Symbolic Interactionp. 17
Doing Sociological Researchp. 20
Sociology and the Scientific Methodp. 21
The Research Processp. 21
The Tools of Sociological Researchp. 24
The Survey: Polls, Questionnaires, and Interviewsp. 24
Participant Observationp. 25
Controlled Experimentsp. 26
Content Analysisp. 26
Comparative and Historical Researchp. 27
Evaluation Researchp. 27
Prediction and Samplingp. 27
Research Ethics: Is Sociology Value-Free?p. 28
Chapter Summaryp. 29
Society and Social Structure
Culturep. 31
Defining Culturep. 32
Characteristics of Culturep. 33
Biology and Human Culturep. 35
The Elements of Culturep. 36
Languagep. 36
Normsp. 39
Beliefsp. 40
Valuesp. 40
Cultural Diversityp. 41
Dominant Culturep. 43
Subculturesp. 43
Counterculturesp. 45
Ethnocentrismp. 46
The Globalization of Culturep. 47
Popular Culturep. 48
The Influence of the Mass Mediap. 50
Racism and Sexism in the Mediap. 51
Theoretical Perspectives on Culturep. 52
Culture and Group Solidarityp. 53
Culture, Power, and Social Conflictp. 53
New Cultural Studiesp. 54
Cultural Changep. 55
Culture Lagp. 55
Sources of Cultural Changep. 55
Chapter Summaryp. 56
Socializationp. 59
The Socialization Processp. 60
Socialization as Social Controlp. 62
Conformity and Individualityp. 62
The Consequences of Socializationp. 63
Theories of Socializationp. 64
Psychoanalytic Theoryp. 64
Object Relations Theoryp. 65
Social Learning Theoryp. 65
Symbolic Interaction Theoryp. 66
Agents of Socializationp. 68
The Familyp. 69
The Mediap. 69
Peersp. 71
Religionp. 71
Sportsp. 73
Schoolsp. 74
Growing Up in a Diverse Societyp. 75
Socialization Across the Life Coursep. 76
Childhoodp. 76
Adolescencep. 78
Adulthoodp. 79
Old Agep. 80
Rites of Passagep. 82
Resocializationp. 84
The Process of Conversionp. 84
The Brainwashing Debatep. 85
Chapter Summaryp. 85
Society and Social Interactionp. 88
What Is Society?p. 89
Microanalysis and Macroanalysisp. 89
Groupsp. 90
Statusesp. 90
Rolesp. 92
Theories About Analyzing Social Interactionp. 93
The Social Construction of Realityp. 93
Ethnomethodologyp. 94
Impression Management and Dramaturgyp. 95
Social Exchangep. 97
Interaction in Cyberspacep. 97
A Study in Diversity: Forms of Nonverbal Communicationp. 99
Touchp. 99
Paralinguistic Communicationp. 100
Kinesic Communicationp. 101
Use of Personal Spacep. 102
Interpersonal Attraction and the Formation of Pairsp. 103
Proximityp. 104
Mere Exposure Effectp. 104
Perceived Physical Attractivenessp. 104
Similarityp. 105
Social Institutions and Social Structurep. 105
Social Institutionsp. 105
Social Structurep. 107
What Holds Society Together?p. 107
Mechanical and Organic Solidarityp. 107
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaftp. 108
Types of Societies: A Global Viewp. 109
Industrial Societiesp. 110
Postindustrial Societiesp. 112
Chapter Summaryp. 113
Groups and Organizationsp. 115
Types of Groupsp. 117
Dyads and Triads: Group Size Effectsp. 117
Primary and Secondary Groupsp. 118
Reference Groupsp. 119
In-Groups and Out-Groupsp. 119
Social Networksp. 121
The Small World Problemp. 121
Social Influencep. 122
The Bystander Intervention Problemp. 122
The Asch Conformity Experimentp. 123
The Milgram Obedience Studiesp. 124
Groupthinkp. 125
Risky Shiftp. 126
Formal Organizations and Bureaucraciesp. 127
Types of Organizationsp. 127
Bureaucracyp. 129
Bureaucracy's Other Facep. 130
Problems of Bureaucracyp. 131
The McDonaldization of Societyp. 132
New Global Organizational Forms: The Japanese Modelp. 134
Diversity: Race, Gender, and Class in Organizationsp. 135
Functional, Conflict, and Symbolic Interaction: Theoretical Perspectivesp. 137
Chapter Summaryp. 138
Deviancep. 141
Defining Deviancep. 143
Sociological Perspectives on Deviancep. 143
Psychological Explanations of Deviancep. 146
Sociological Theories of Deviancep. 147
Functionalist Theories of Deviancep. 147
Conflict Theories of Deviancep. 151
Symbolic Interaction Theories of Deviancep. 153
Forms of Deviancep. 156
Mental Illnessp. 156
Social Stigmasp. 157
Crime and Criminal Justicep. 157
Types of Crimep. 158
Race, Class, Gender, and Crimep. 159
The Criminal Justice Systemp. 162
Deviance in Global Perspectivep. 166
Chapter Summaryp. 168
Social Inequality
Social Stratificationp. 170
Social Differentiation and Social Stratificationp. 172
Estate, Caste, and Classp. 172
Defining Classp. 173
Why Is There Inequality?p. 174
Functionalism and Conflict Theory: The Continuing Debatep. 175
The Class Structure of the United Statesp. 177
Layers of Social Classp. 179
Class Conflictp. 180
The Distribution of Wealth and Incomep. 182
Diverse Sources of Stratificationp. 183
Social Mobility: Myths and Realitiesp. 185
Defining Social Mobilityp. 186
The Extent of Social Mobilityp. 186
Class Consciousnessp. 187
Povertyp. 187
Who Are the Poor?p. 188
Causes of Povertyp. 190
Welfarep. 193
Chapter Summaryp. 195
Global Stratificationp. 198
Rich and Poorp. 200
First, Second, and Third Worldsp. 202
The Core and Peripheryp. 203
Race and Global Inequalityp. 203
Consequences of Global Stratificationp. 204
Populationp. 204
Healthp. 206
Educationp. 206
Genderp. 207
Theories of Global Stratificationp. 207
Modernization Theoryp. 207
Dependency Theoryp. 209
World Systems Theoryp. 210
World Povertyp. 212
Relative, Absolute, and Capability Povertyp. 212
Who Are the World's Poor?p. 212
Women and Children in Povertyp. 213
Poverty and Hungerp. 213
Causes of World Povertyp. 215
The Future of Global Stratificationp. 216
Chapter Summaryp. 217
Race and Ethnicityp. 220
Race and Ethnicityp. 221
Ethnicityp. 221
Racep. 222
Minority and Dominant Groupsp. 224
Racial Stereotypesp. 224
Stereotypes and Saliencep. 225
The Interplay Among Race, Gender, and Class stereotypesp. 225
Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racismp. 226
Prejudicep. 226
Discriminationp. 227
Racismp. 228
Theories of Prejudice and Racismp. 230
Social Psychological Theories of Prejudicep. 230
Sociological Theories of Prejudice and Racismp. 230
Diverse Groups, Diverse Historiesp. 231
Native Americansp. 232
African Americansp. 233
Latinosp. 233
Asian Americansp. 235
Middle Easternersp. 236
White Ethnic Groupsp. 236
Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Relationsp. 238
Assimilation and Pluralismp. 238
Colonialismp. 239
Segregation and the Urban Underclassp. 240
The Relative Importance of Class and Racep. 241
Attaining Racial and Ethnic Equality: The Challengep. 242
Racial-Ethnic Conflict: A World Problemp. 242
Civil Rightsp. 242
Black Power, Red Power: Radical Social Changep. 243
Race-Specific Versus Color-Blind Programs for Changep. 243
Chapter Summaryp. 245
Sex and Genderp. 247
Defining Sex and Genderp. 248
Sex Differences: Nature or Nurture?p. 249
Sexuality and Genderp. 250
The Social Construction of Genderp. 252
The Formation of Gender Identityp. 252
Sources of Gender Socializationp. 253
The Price of Conformityp. 254
Race, Gender, and Identityp. 255
Gay and Lesbian Identityp. 257
The Institutional Basis of Genderp. 259
Gender Stratificationp. 260
Sexism and Patriarchyp. 260
Women's Worth: Still Unequalp. 261
The Persistence of Gender Segregationp. 264
Gender in Global Perspectivep. 266
Theories of Genderp. 268
The Frameworks of Sociologyp. 268
Feminist Theoryp. 268
Gender and Social Changep. 270
Contemporary Attitudesp. 270
The Sexual Revolutionp. 270
Legislative Changep. 271
Chapter Summaryp. 273
Social Institutions
Familiesp. 276
Defining the Familyp. 278
Comparing Kinship Systemsp. 278
Extended and Nuclear Familiesp. 280
Sociological Theory and Familiesp. 282
Functionalist Theory and the Familyp. 282
Conflict Theory and the Familyp. 283
Feminist Theory and the Familyp. 283
Symbolic Interaction Theory and the Familyp. 283
Diversity Among Contemporary American Familiesp. 284
Female-Headed Householdsp. 285
Married-Couple Familiesp. 286
Stepfamiliesp. 287
Gay and Lesbian Householdsp. 288
Singlesp. 289
Marriage and Divorcep. 290
Marriagep. 290
Divorcep. 292
Families and Social Problemsp. 294
Family Violencep. 294
Elder Care and Elder Abusep. 295
Teen Pregnancyp. 296
Changing Families/Changing Societyp. 298
Global Changes in Family Lifep. 298
The Graying of Americap. 298
Families and Social Policyp. 300
Chapter Summaryp. 301
Education and Workp. 303
Schooling and Society: Theories of Educationp. 304
The Functionalist View of Educationp. 305
The Conflict View of Educationp. 306
The Symbolic Interactionist View of Educationp. 306
Does Schooling Matter?p. 307
Effects of Education on Occupation and Incomep. 307
Effects of Social Class Background on Education and Social Mobilityp. 307
Education, Social Class, and Mobility Seen Globallyp. 308
Education and Inequalityp. 308
Cognitive Ability and Its Measurementp. 309
Ability and Diversityp. 309
The Bell Curve Debatep. 310
Tracking and Labeling Effectsp. 311
Teacher Expectancy Effectp. 312
Schooling and Genderp. 313
Economy and Societyp. 314
The Industrial Revolutionp. 314
Comparing Economic Systemsp. 315
The Changing Global Economyp. 316
Deindustrializationp. 317
Technological Changep. 317
Theoretical Perspectives on Workp. 318
Defining Workp. 318
The Division of Laborp. 319
Functionalism, Conflict Theory, and Symbolic Interactionp. 321
Characteristics of the Labor Forcep. 322
Who Works?p. 322
Unemployment and Joblessnessp. 323
Diversity in the American Occupational Systemp. 325
Power in the Workplacep. 327
Sexual Harassmentp. 327
Gays and Lesbians in the Workplacep. 328
Disability and Workp. 329
Chapter Summaryp. 330
Government and Health Carep. 333
Defining the Statep. 334
The Institutions of the Statep. 335
The State and Social Orderp. 335
Power and Authorityp. 335
Types of Authorityp. 336
The Growth of Bureaucratic Governmentp. 336
Theories of Powerp. 338
The Pluralist Modelp. 338
The Power Elite Modelp. 339
The Autonomous State Modelp. 339
Feminist Theories of the Statep. 340
Government: Power and Politics in a Diverse Societyp. 340
Diverse Patterns of Political Participationp. 340
Political Power: Who's in Charge?p. 342
Women and Minorities in Governmentp. 344
The Militaryp. 344
Health Care in the United Statesp. 347
Health and Sickness in America: A Picture of Diversityp. 349
Race and Health Carep. 350
Social Class and Health Carep. 351
Gender and Health Carep. 351
Attitudes Toward Health and Illnessp. 352
Mental Illnessp. 354
The Medicalization of Illness and Deviancep. 355
Theoretical Perspectives on Health Carep. 356
The Functionalist View of Health Carep. 356
The Conflict Theory Viewp. 356
Symbolic Interactionism and the Role of Perceptionsp. 357
The Health Care Crisis in Americap. 357
The Fee-for-Service Systemp. 358
Malpracticep. 359
Fraud and Abusep. 359
A Response to the Problem: HMOsp. 359
The Universal Health Care Debatep. 360
Death and Dyingp. 361
Chapter Summaryp. 361
Religionp. 364
The Significance of Religion in American Societyp. 367
The Dominance of Christianityp. 368
Measuring Religious Faithp. 368
Forms of Religionp. 369
Monotheism and Polytheismp. 369
Patriarchal and Matriarchal Religionsp. 369
Sociological Theories of Religionp. 370
Emile Durkheim: The Functions of Religionp. 370
Max Weber: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalismp. 371
Karl Marx: Religion, Social Conflict, and Oppressionp. 372
Globalization: World Religions and Religious Diversityp. 372
Christianityp. 373
Judaismp. 375
Islamp. 376
Hinduismp. 376
Buddhismp. 376
Confucianismp. 377
Diversity and Religious Beliefp. 377
Religious Organizationsp. 378
Churchesp. 378
Sectsp. 378
Cultsp. 379
Becoming Religiousp. 379
Social and Political Attitudes: The Impact of Religionp. 383
Racial Prejudicep. 383
Homophobiap. 384
Anti-Semitismp. 384
Religion and Social Changep. 384
Chapter Summaryp. 388
Social Change
Population, Urbanism, and the Environmentp. 391
Demography and the U.S. Censusp. 392
Diversity and the Three Basic Demographic Processesp. 393
Birthratep. 393
Death Ratep. 394
Migrationp. 395
Population Characteristicsp. 396
Sex Ratio and the Population Pyramidp. 396
Cohortsp. 397
Theories of Population Growth Locally and Globallyp. 398
Malthusian Theoryp. 399
Demographic Transition Theoryp. 400
The "Population Bomb" and Zero Population Growthp. 401
Checking Population Growthp. 402
Family Planning and Diversityp. 403
Population Policy and Diversityp. 403
Urbanismp. 404
Urbanism as a Lifestylep. 404
Race, Class, and the Suburbsp. 404
Ecology and the Environmentp. 404
Vanishing Resourcesp. 406
Environmental Pollutionp. 406
Environmental Racism and Classismp. 409
Feminism and the Environmentp. 410
Environmental Policyp. 411
Population and Environment in the Twenty-First Centuryp. 411
Chapter Summaryp. 412
Social Change and Social Movementsp. 414
What Is Social Change?p. 415
Theories of Social Changep. 417
Functionalist and Evolutionary Theoriesp. 417
Conflict Theoriesp. 419
Cyclical Theoriesp. 420
Modernization Theoryp. 421
World Systems Theoryp. 421
Dependency Theoryp. 421
The Social Consequences of Modernizationp. 422
From Community to Societyp. 422
Mass Society and Bureaucracyp. 423
Social Inequality, Powerlessness, and the Individualp. 424
Sources of Social Changep. 425
Cultural Diffusionp. 425
Demographic Changep. 426
War and Social Changep. 427
Technological Innovationp. 427
Collective Behavior and Social Movementsp. 427
The Cyberspace Revolutionp. 428
Collective Behavior and Social Movementsp. 428
Characteristics of Collective Behaviorp. 430
The Organization of Social Movementsp. 431
Origins of Social Movementsp. 432
Theories of Social Movementsp. 434
Diversity, Globalization, and Social Changep. 435
Chapter Summaryp. 437
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