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Challenge of Effective Speaking

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ISBN-10: 0534563872

ISBN-13: 9780534563875

Edition: 12th 2003

Authors: Rudolph F. Verderber

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Wadsworth's best selling Public Speaking text, the Verderbers' CHALLENGE OF EFFECTIVE SPEAKING, features a skills-oriented, mainstream approach that has effectively led hundreds of thousands of students through the challenges they face as they develop and deliver speeches. The speech making process is presented in a six-step framework based on classical and contemporary theory. The straightforward writing style and effective use of examples enables students to understand and effectively perform key speech making activities. The six-step framework emphasizes topic selection, audience analysis and adaptation, effective research (including appropriate use of Internet resources), organization…    
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Book details

Edition: 12th
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Wadsworth
Binding: Hardcover
Language: English

Rudolph (Rudy) F. Verderber (Ph.D., University of Missouri) is the Distinguished Teaching Professor of Communication Emeritus at the University of Cincinnati and one of the nation's leading authors of communication textbooks. During his tenure at the University of Cincinnati, where he was head of the university's Communication Department, Dr. Verderber taught more than 25 different courses, 10 of which he originated. Considered one of the university's finest teachers, he received the Dolly Cohen Award for Outstanding Teaching (two such awards are given at the university each year), and in 1994, he was named Distinguished Teaching Professor, an honor held by only four faculty members across…    

Prefacep. xvii
Introduction to Public Speakingp. 1
Public Speaking Is Empowermentp. 2
Public Speaking Is Audience Centeredp. 3
The Speakerp. 3
The Speechp. 3
The Channelp. 4
The Audiencep. 4
The Contextp. 4
Noisep. 6
Feedbackp. 6
Model of Public Speaking as Communicationp. 7
Public Speaking Challenges Speakers to Consider Audience Diversityp. 8
Public Speaking Develops Critical Thinkingp. 10
Public Speaking Carries Ethical Responsibilitiesp. 11
Public Speaking Is a Learned Activityp. 13
Summaryp. 14
Preparing Your First Speech and Coping with Nervousnessp. 16
An Effective Speech Planp. 18
Goalp. 18
Speech Materialp. 19
Organizationp. 20
Audience Adaptationp. 22
Visual Aidsp. 22
Languagep. 23
Deliveryp. 23
Coping with Nervousnessp. 26
Specific Behaviorsp. 28
Persistent Nervousnessp. 31
Summaryp. 31
Listening Criticallyp. 34
Attending to the Speechp. 36
Understanding and Retaining Speech Informationp. 38
Analyzing Speeches and Determining Their Effectivenessp. 42
Bases of Evaluationp. 43
Specific Criteria for Evaluating Speechesp. 43
The Importance of Feedbackp. 44
Summaryp. 46
Reflect on Ethicsp. 47
Selecting a Topic, Analyzing the Audience and Setting, and Determining Your Speech Goalp. 48
Selecting a Topic from a Subject Areap. 50
Identifying Subjectsp. 50
Brainstorming for Topicsp. 51
Analyzing the Audiencep. 53
Kinds of Audience Data Neededp. 54
Ways of Gathering Audience Datap. 55
Using Data to Predict Audience Reactionsp. 55
Surveying Students to Test Predictionsp. 57
Considering the Settingp. 60
Writing the Speech Goalp. 62
General Goalp. 62
Specific Goalp. 63
Anticipating a Thesis Statementp. 65
Summaryp. 66
Reflect on Ethicsp. 67
Researching Your Speech in the Information Agep. 68
Where to Look: Traditional and Electronic Sources of Informationp. 70
Personal Knowledge, Experience, and Observationp. 71
Researchp. 72
The Internetp. 79
Interviewsp. 82
What Information to Look Forp. 85
Factual Statementsp. 86
Expert Opinionsp. 86
Verbal Forms of Informationp. 86
Recording Data and Citing Written and Electronic Sourcesp. 91
Recording Datap. 91
Citing Sources in Speechesp. 93
Reflect on Ethicsp. 94
Summaryp. 95
Organizing and Outlining the Speech Bodyp. 96
Writing a Thesis Statementp. 99
Outlining Main Pointsp. 100
Write Main Points as Complete Sentencesp. 100
Revise Main Pointsp. 102
Determining the Best Orderp. 104
Topic Orderp. 105
Time Orderp. 105
Space Orderp. 106
Logical Reasons Orderp. 107
Other Choicesp. 107
Selecting and Outlining Supporting Materialp. 109
List Supporting Materialp. 109
Organize Supporting Materialp. 109
Outlining Section Transitionsp. 112
Listing Sourcesp. 113
Written Sourcesp. 113
Electronic Databasesp. 114
Experience and Observationp. 115
Interviewsp. 115
Reflect on Ethicsp. 116
Summaryp. 116
Organizing and Outlining Introductions and Conclusionsp. 118
Outlining the Introductionp. 120
Goals of the Introductionp. 120
Types of Introductionsp. 122
Selecting an Introductionp. 125
Outlining the Conclusionp. 126
Goals of the Conclusionp. 127
Types of Conclusionsp. 127
Selecting a Conclusionp. 128
Writing a Titlep. 129
Completing the Outlinep. 130
Readying Notes for Practicep. 131
Reflect on Ethicsp. 135
Summaryp. 135
Adapting to Audiencesp. 136
Developing Common Groundp. 138
Use Personal Pronounsp. 138
Ask Rhetorical Questionsp. 139
Share Common Experiencesp. 139
Personalize Informationp. 139
Creating and Maintaining Audience Interestp. 141
Timelinessp. 141
Proximityp. 141
Seriousnessp. 141
Adapting to Audience Level of Understandingp. 142
Orienting Listenersp. 142
Presenting New Informationp. 143
Building a Positive Audience Attitude toward You as the Speakerp. 145
Knowledge and Expertisep. 145
Trustworthinessp. 145
Personalityp. 147
Adapting to Audience Attitude toward Your Speech Goalp. 147
Forming a Plan of Audience Adaptationp. 148
Specifics of the Speech Planp. 148
Examples of Speech Plansp. 148
Special Problems of Speakers from Different Culturesp. 152
Reflect on Ethicsp. 152
Summaryp. 153
Visual Aids: From Models to Computer Graphicsp. 154
Types of Visual Aidsp. 156
Yourselfp. 157
Objectsp. 157
Modelsp. 157
Chartsp. 157
Flipchartsp. 159
Graphsp. 159
Pictorial Representationsp. 160
Projectionsp. 162
Chalkboard or Markerboardp. 164
Handoutsp. 165
Computer Graphicsp. 165
Making Choicesp. 166
Designing Visual Aidsp. 167
Using Visual Aids in Your Speechp. 173
Reflect on Ethicsp. 174
Summaryp. 175
Practicing Speech Wordingp. 176
Developing an Oral Style to Communicate Meaningp. 178
Language and Meaningp. 179
The Denotative and Connotative Meaning of Wordsp. 180
Variations in Meaning across Subgroupsp. 180
Speaking Clearlyp. 181
Use Specific, Concrete, Precise, Simple Wordsp. 181
Eliminate Clutterp. 184
Develop Your Ability to Speak More Clearlyp. 185
Be Sensitive to Cultural Differencesp. 186
Speaking Vividlyp. 188
Using Similesp. 190
Using Metaphorsp. 190
Speaking Emphaticallyp. 190
Emphasize through Placement and Sequencingp. 191
Emphasize through Repetition or Restatementp. 191
Emphasize through Transitionp. 192
Speaking Appropriatelyp. 194
Formal versus Informal Languagep. 194
Freedom from Jargon and Unnecessary Technical Expressionsp. 194
Sensitivity in Language Usep. 195
Reflect on Ethicsp. 197
Summaryp. 198
Practicing Deliveryp. 200
Physical Elements of Deliveryp. 202
Voicep. 202
Articulationp. 205
Bodily Actionp. 207
Achieving a Conversational Qualityp. 209
Enthusiasmp. 209
Vocal Expressivenessp. 209
Spontaneityp. 210
Fluencyp. 211
Eye Contactp. 212
Rehearsalp. 213
Timetable for Preparation and Practicep. 213
Using Notes during Your Speechp. 214
Rehearsal Sessionsp. 216
Criteria for Evaluating Speechesp. 218
Summaryp. 218
Sample Speech: Ridding the Body of Toxinsp. 220
Reflect on Ethicsp. 223
Informative and Persuasive Speaking
Principles and Practices of Informative Speakingp. 224
Principles of Informingp. 226
Credibilityp. 226
Intellectual Stimulationp. 226
Creativityp. 228
Relevancep. 230
Emphasisp. 231
Methods of Informingp. 233
Expositionp. 234
Sample Speech: Improving Gradesp. 235
Process Explanation or Demonstrationp. 239
Sample Speech: Process of Producing a Nightly Edition of ESPN's SportsCenterp. 242
Definitionp. 246
Sample Speech: Impressionistic Paintingp. 249
Summaryp. 252
Reflect on Ethicsp. 253
Principles of Persuasive Speakingp. 254
Writing a Specific Goal That Meets Ethical Standardsp. 256
Adapting to Audience Attitudep. 258
In Favorp. 260
No Opinionp. 261
Opposedp. 261
Giving Good Reasons and Evidencep. 262
Finding Reasonsp. 263
Finding Evidence to Support Your Reasonsp. 264
Organizing Reasons to Meet Audience Attitudesp. 265
Statement of Logical Reasons Patternp. 266
Problem Solution Patternp. 266
Comparative Advantages Patternp. 267
Criteria Satisfaction Patternp. 268
Motivational Patternp. 268
Using Emotion to Motivatep. 269
Developing Your Credibilityp. 271
Presenting the Speech Convincinglyp. 272
Considering Gender and Cultural Differencesp. 272
Sample Speech: Limiting Exposure to the Sunp. 273
Reflect on Ethicsp. 277
Summaryp. 277
Practicing Persuasive Speaking Skillsp. 278
Reasoning with Audiencesp. 280
Essentials of Reasoningp. 280
Types of Argumentsp. 282
Sample Speech: Volunteering at a Soup Kitchenp. 290
Motivating Audiencesp. 293
Incentive Theory: Cost/Reward Ratiosp. 294
Basic Needs Theoryp. 295
Sample Speech: Notes to Neighborsp. 299
Refuting Persuasive Claimsp. 303
Outline What Your Opponent Says and Your Reactionp. 303
Plan Your Procedurep. 304
Organize and Present Your Refutationp. 305
Supporting and Refuting: Two Sides of a Debatep. 307
Speech in Favor of Prohibiting the Use of Lie Detector Testsp. 307
Speech of Refutation: Using Lie Detector Testsp. 309
Reflect on Ethicsp. 310
Summaryp. 311
Adapting to Other Occasions and Formats
Speaking at Special Occasionsp. 312
Introductionsp. 314
Presentationsp. 315
Acceptancesp. 316
Welcomingsp. 318
Tributesp. 318
Other Ceremonial Occasionsp. 319
Impromptu Speechesp. 320
Manuscript Speechesp. 322
Reflect on Ethicsp. 323
Summaryp. 323
Leading Problem-Solving Groupsp. 324
Leadership in Problem-Solving Group Discussionp. 326
Leadership Definedp. 326
Leadership Traitsp. 326
Leadership Stylesp. 327
Leadership Preparationp. 329
Gender Differences in Leader Acceptabilityp. 329
Understanding Problem Solvingp. 330
State the Goal of Discussion as a Questionp. 331
Ask Questions That Analyze the Problemp. 331
Suggest Possible Solutionsp. 331
Lay the Groundwork for Selecting the Best Solutionp. 332
Task Responsibilities of the Leaderp. 332
Plan the Agendap. 332
Ask Appropriate Questionsp. 333
Keep the Group on Trackp. 335
Summarize Frequentlyp. 335
Maintenance Responsibilities of the Leaderp. 336
Establish a Good Working Climatep. 336
Reward Members for Valuable Contributionsp. 336
Give Everyone an Equal Opportunity to Speakp. 336
Deal with Cultural Diversityp. 338
When the Group Goes Publicp. 340
Symposiump. 340
Panel Discussionp. 341
Presentation of Conclusionsp. 342
Reflect on Ethicsp. 342
Summaryp. 342
Sample Speechesp. 345
Service: Life Beyond Selfp. 345
Careers in International Business: Five Ideas or Principlesp. 349
Other Speechesp. 349
Notesp. 357
Glossaryp. 363
Indexp. 369
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.