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Juvenile Delinquency Theory, Practice and Law

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ISBN-10: 0534557287

ISBN-13: 9780534557287

Edition: 7th 2000

Authors: Larry J. Siegel, Joseph J. Senna

List price: $102.95
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This work offers an analysis of theories of delinquency, environmental issues, juvenile justice issues and the juvenile justice system. It presents cutting-edge and seminal research, up-to-the minute policy and newsworthy examples.
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Book details

List price: $102.95
Edition: 7th
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 7/16/1999
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 752
Size: 8.66" wide x 11.02" long
Weight: 4.290
Language: English

Born in Brooklyn, New York, Joseph J. Senna graduated from Brooklyn College, Fordham University Graduate School Service, and Suffolk University Law School. Dr. Senna spent over fourteen years teaching law and justice courses at Northeastern University. In addition, he has served as an Assistant District Attorney, Director of Harvard Law School Prosecutorial Program, and consultant to numerous criminal justice organizations. His academic specialties include the areas of Criminal Law, Constitutional Due Process, Criminal Justice, and Juvenile Law. Dr. Senna lives with his wife and sons outside of Boston.

Prefacep. xvii
The Concept of Delinquencyp. 1
Childhood and Delinquencyp. 3
The Adolescent Dilemmap. 6
Youth in Crisisp. 8
Are There Reasons for Hope?p. 9
Focus on Delinquency: Risky Businessp. 10
The Study of Juvenile Delinquencyp. 12
The Development of Childhoodp. 13
Custom and Practice in the Middle Agesp. 14
The Development of Concern for Childrenp. 15
Childhood in Americap. 18
Controlling Childrenp. 18
The Concept of Delinquencyp. 19
Delinquency and Parens Patriaep. 19
The Legal Status of Delinquencyp. 20
Legal Responsibility of Youthsp. 20
Status Offendersp. 21
The Status Offender in the Juvenile Justice Systemp. 24
Aiding the Status Offenderp. 24
Reforming Status Offense Lawsp. 25
Increasing Social Controlp. 26
Should the Courts Control Status Offenders?p. 27
The "Dilemma" of Delinquencyp. 28
Focus on Delinquency: Youth Crime Around the Worldp. 30
The Nature and Extent of Delinquencyp. 36
Official Statisticsp. 39
Crime Trends in the United Statesp. 39
Measuring Official Delinquencyp. 41
Criticism of Official Datap. 43
Focus on Delinquency: The Rise and Fall of Juvenile Crime Ratesp. 44
Self-Reported Delinquencyp. 46
Self-Report Datap. 47
Validating Self-Reportsp. 49
Correlates of Delinquencyp. 50
Gender and Delinquencyp. 51
Racial Patterns in Delinquencyp. 52
Social Class and Delinquencyp. 55
Age and Delinquencyp. 57
Chronic Offending: Careers in Delinquencyp. 59
The Glueck Researchp. 59
The Chronic Juvenile Offenderp. 60
Stability in Crime: From Delinquent to Criminalp. 63
Policy Implicationsp. 64
Juvenile Victimizationp. 64
Victimization in the United Statesp. 66
Young Victimsp. 66
The Victims and Their Criminalsp. 67
Theories of Delinquencyp. 75
Focus on the Individual: Choice and Trait Theoriesp. 77
Choice Theory and Classical Criminologyp. 80
The Rational Delinquentp. 80
Choosing Delinquent Actsp. 81
Focus on Delinquency: Is Delinquency "Seductive"?p. 82
Routine Activitiesp. 83
Preventing Delinquencyp. 85
General Deterrencep. 85
Specific Deterrencep. 86
Situational Crime Preventionp. 87
Do Delinquents Choose Crime?p. 88
Trait Theories: Biosocial and Psychological Viewsp. 90
The Origins of Trait Theoryp. 90
Contemporary Biosocial Theoryp. 92
Biochemical Factorsp. 93
Neurological Dysfunctionp. 94
Focus on Delinquency: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorderp. 96
Genetic Influencesp. 98
Evolutionary Theoryp. 100
Psychological Theories of Delinquencyp. 101
Psychodynamic Theoryp. 102
Behavioral Theoryp. 105
Cognitive Theoryp. 108
Personality and Delinquencyp. 110
Intelligence and Delinquencyp. 112
Critiquing Trait Theory Viewsp. 114
Defending Trait Theoryp. 115
Trait Theory and Delinquency Preventionp. 115
Social Structure and Delinquencyp. 125
Social Stratificationp. 129
Being Poorp. 129
Social Structure and Delinquencyp. 130
Focus on Delinquency: Race and Povertyp. 132
The Branches of Social Structure Theoryp. 132
Social Disorganization Theoryp. 134
The Area Studies of Shaw and McKayp. 135
Contemporary Social Ecologyp. 138
Does Delinquency Cause Poverty?p. 140
Strain Theoryp. 143
Merton's Theory of Anomiep. 145
Focus on Delinquency: Crime and the American Dreamp. 146
General Strain Theory (GST)p. 148
Cultural Deviance Theoriesp. 151
Development of Subculturesp. 152
Subcultural Values Todayp. 154
Cohen's Theory of Delinquent Subculturep. 154
Opportunity Theoryp. 156
Social Structure Theory and Delinquency Preventionp. 157
Social Process Theories: Learning, Control, and Developmentalp. 163
Social Processes and Delinquencyp. 166
Learning Theoriesp. 167
Differential Association Theoryp. 168
Differential Reinforcement Theoryp. 173
Neutralization Theoryp. 173
Control Theoriesp. 176
Self-Concept and Delinquencyp. 177
Hirschi's Control Theoryp. 178
The General Theory of Crimep. 182
Developmental Perspectivesp. 185
Continuity of Crimep. 186
Multiple Pathways to Delinquencyp. 189
Problem Behavior Syndromep. 189
Offense Specializationp. 191
Constructing Developmental Theoriesp. 191
The Social Development Modelp. 191
Policy and Practice: The Social Development Modelp. 194
Interactional Theoryp. 194
Age-Graded Theoryp. 197
Policy Implicationsp. 198
Policy and Practice: Head Startp. 200
Social Reaction Theories: Labeling and Conflictp. 207
Labeling Theoryp. 210
Applying Labelsp. 211
Who Defines Deviance?p. 211
The Effect of Labelingp. 212
Primary and Secondary Deviancep. 214
The Juvenile Justice Process and Labelingp. 215
Policy and Practice: Prosecutor's Precharging Diversion Programp. 216
Evaluation of Labeling Theoryp. 219
Social Conflict Theoryp. 220
The Emergence of Critical Criminologyp. 220
The Branches of Conflict Theoryp. 222
Elements of Social Conflict Theoryp. 223
The Conflict Concept of Delinquencyp. 225
Emerging Concepts of Conflict Theoryp. 226
Social Reaction Theories and Delinquency Preventionp. 228
Restorative Justicep. 229
Policy and Practice: Restorative Justice in Practicep. 232
Environmental Influences on Delinquencyp. 239
Gender and Delinquencyp. 241
Gender Differences in Developmentp. 244
Socialization Differencesp. 244
Cognitive Differencesp. 245
Personality Differencesp. 245
What Causes Gender Differences?p. 245
Gender Differences and Delinquencyp. 247
Gender Patterns in Delinquencyp. 247
Violent Behaviorp. 248
Trait Views of Female Delinquencyp. 249
Biological Explanationsp. 250
Psychological Explanationsp. 251
Contemporary Trait Viewsp. 251
Focus on Delinquency: The Biosocial Study of Female Delinquencyp. 252
Socialization Viewsp. 257
Socialization and Delinquencyp. 257
Contemporary Socialization Viewsp. 259
Liberal Feminist Viewsp. 260
Sisters in Crimep. 261
Support for Liberal Feminismp. 262
Critiques of Liberal Feminismp. 262
Is Convergence Possible?p. 263
Radical Feminist Viewsp. 263
Crime and Patriarchyp. 264
Power-Control Theoryp. 264
Gender and the Juvenile Justice Systemp. 265
Focus on Delinquency: Guardians of Virtuep. 266
Are Standards Changing?p. 267
The Family and Delinquency: Makeup, Influence, and Abusep. 273
The Changing American Familyp. 276
Family Makeupp. 276
Child Carep. 276
Economic Stressp. 277
The Effects of Child Neglect and Abusep. 277
The Family's Influence on Delinquencyp. 277
Focus on Delinquency: Do Parents Control Behavior?p. 278
Family Breakup: Broken Homesp. 279
Family Conflictp. 282
The Quality of Parent-Child Relationsp. 284
Parental Deviancep. 286
Child Abuse and Neglectp. 287
Historical Foundationp. 287
Defining Abuse and Neglectp. 288
Sexual Abusep. 290
The Extent of Child Abusep. 291
Focus on Delinquency: Juvenile Prostitutionp. 291
The Causes of Child Abuse and Neglectp. 295
Focus on Delinquency: Women Who Have Killed Their Childrenp. 297
The Child Protection System: Philosophy and Practicep. 299
The Abused Child in Courtp. 302
Disposition of Abuse and Neglect Casesp. 306
Abuse, Neglect, and Delinquencyp. 306
The Abuse-Delinquency Linkp. 308
The Family and Delinquency Preventionp. 309
Early Childhood Interventionp. 309
Improving Parenting Skillsp. 310
Peers and Delinquency: Juvenile Gangs and Groupsp. 317
Adolescent Peer Relationsp. 319
Peer Relations and Delinquencyp. 320
Youth Gangsp. 321
What Are Gangs?p. 322
Near Groups and Youth Groupsp. 324
The Study of Juvenile Gangs and Groupsp. 324
Why Did Gang Activity Increase?p. 326
Contemporary Gangsp. 327
Extentp. 327
Typesp. 328
Locationp. 329
Agep. 332
Genderp. 333
Formationp. 335
Leadershipp. 335
Communicationsp. 336
Criminalityp. 338
Ethnic and Racial Compositionp. 340
Focus on Delinquency: Barrio Gangsp. 342
Why Do Youths Join Gangs?p. 345
Anthropological Viewp. 345
Social Disorganization/Sociocultural Viewp. 346
Psychological Viewp. 347
Rational Choice Viewp. 348
Controlling Gang Activityp. 349
Law Enforcement Effortsp. 349
Policy and Practice: Boston's Youth Violence Strike Forcep. 351
Community Control Effortsp. 351
Why Gang Control Is Difficultp. 352
Policy and Practice: School-Based Gang Resistance Programsp. 353
Schools and Delinquencyp. 358
The School in Modern American Societyp. 360
Socialization and Statusp. 361
Education in Crisisp. 362
Academic Performance and Delinquencyp. 362
School Failure and Delinquencyp. 364
The Causes of School Failurep. 364
Dropping Outp. 368
Delinquency within the Schoolp. 370
Focus on Delinquency: Bullying in Schoolp. 376
Who Commits School Crime?p. 378
Reducing School Crimep. 378
The Role of the School in Delinquency Preventionp. 382
Legal Rights within the Schoolp. 384
Compulsory School Attendancep. 385
Policy and Practice: Keeping Children in Schoolp. 386
Free Speechp. 388
School Disciplinep. 390
Privacyp. 391
Drug Use and Delinquencyp. 395
Substances of Abusep. 397
Marijuana and Hashishp. 398
Cocainep. 398
Heroinp. 399
Alcoholp. 399
Anestheticsp. 400
Inhalantsp. 400
Sedatives and Barbituratesp. 401
Tranquilizersp. 401
Hallucinogensp. 401
Stimulantsp. 401
Steroidsp. 402
Cigarettesp. 402
Drug Use Todayp. 402
Drug Use Surveysp. 403
ISR Surveyp. 404
PRIDE Surveyp. 404
Why Has Teenage Drug Use Fluctuated?p. 405
Are the Survey Results Accurate?p. 407
Why Do Youths Take Drugs?p. 408
Social Disorganizationp. 408
Peer Pressurep. 408
Family Factorsp. 409
Genetic Factorsp. 410
Emotional Problemsp. 410
Problem Behavior Syndromep. 411
Gateway Drugsp. 411
Rational Choicep. 412
Adolescents Who Use Drugsp. 413
Adolescents Who Distribute Small Amounts of Drugsp. 413
Adolescents Who Frequently Sell Drugsp. 413
Teenage Drug Dealers Who Commit Other Delinquent Actsp. 414
Drug-Involved Gangsp. 414
Losers and Burnoutsp. 415
Persistent Offendersp. 416
Drug Use and Delinquencyp. 416
Drugs and Chronic Offendingp. 417
Explaining Drug Use and Delinquencyp. 417
Drug Control Strategiesp. 418
Law Enforcement Effortsp. 419
Education Strategiesp. 420
Community Strategiesp. 420
Policy and Practice: Drug Abuse Resistance Educationp. 421
Treatment Strategiesp. 421
Policy and Practice: Helping Families Prevent Teenage Drug Usep. 423
Juvenile Justice Advocacyp. 429
The History and Development of Juvenile Justicep. 431
The Development of Juvenile Justice in the Nineteenth Centuryp. 434
Urbanizationp. 435
The Child-Saving Movementp. 435
Were They Really Child Savers?p. 437
The Development of Juvenile Institutionsp. 438
Juvenile Law in Review: Legal Challenges to the Child Saversp. 440
A Century of Juvenile Justicep. 441
The Illinois Juvenile Court Act and Its Legacyp. 443
Reforming the Systemp. 445
The Role of the Supreme Court in Juvenile Lawp. 446
The Contemporary Juvenile Justice Systemp. 450
The Juvenile Justice Processp. 450
Focus on Delinquency: The Juvenile Justice System: Key Players, Programs, and Costsp. 454
Criminal Justice versus Juvenile Justicep. 456
The Future of Juvenile Justicep. 459
A Comprehensive Juvenile Justice Strategyp. 459
Focus on Delinquency: Similarities and Differences between Juvenile and Adult Justice Systemsp. 460
Federal Funding for Juvenile Justicep. 462
Policy and Practice: The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974--Twenty-Five Years Laterp. 464
Controlling Juvenile Offendersp. 469
Police Work with Juvenilesp. 471
The Police and Juvenile Offendersp. 474
Police Rolesp. 475
The Police and Violent Juvenile Crimep. 476
The History and Organization of Juvenile Policingp. 477
The History of Policing Juvenilesp. 478
Organization of Police Services for Juvenilesp. 479
Police and the Rule of Lawp. 480
The Arrest Procedurep. 480
Search and Seizurep. 481
Policy and Practice: Balanced and Restorative Justice for Juvenilesp. 482
Juvenile Law in Review: New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1984)p. 484
Juvenile Law in Review: Vernonia School District 47J v. Wayne and Judy Acton, Guardians ad Litem for James Acton (1995)p. 486
Custodial Interrogationp. 488
Discretionary Justicep. 489
Environmental Factorsp. 491
Situational Factorsp. 493
Bias and Police Discretionp. 493
Focus on Delinquency: Race, Gender, and Ethnicity in Juvenile Police Decision Makingp. 495
Limiting Police Discretionp. 498
Police Work and Delinquency Preventionp. 498
Policy and Practice: Promising Delinquency Prevention Programs in Law Enforcementp. 500
Community Policing in the Millenniump. 502
Pretrial Proceduresp. 507
The Concept of Detentionp. 510
National Detention Trendsp. 510
The Decision to Detainp. 513
New Approaches to Detentionp. 514
Detention in Adult Jailsp. 515
Policy and Practice: Reforming the Juvenile Detention Systemp. 516
Deinstitutionalization of Status Offendersp. 518
Deinstitutionalization: A National Projectp. 518
The Intake Processp. 520
Diversionp. 522
Issues in Diversion: Widening the Netp. 523
The Petition and Pretrial Releasep. 524
Bail for Childrenp. 525
Preventive Detentionp. 527
The Plea and Plea Bargainingp. 527
Juvenile Law in Review: Schall v. Martinp. 528
Focus on Delinquency: Pleading Guilty in Juvenile Courtp. 530
Transfer to the Adult Courtp. 530
Due Process in Transfer Proceedingsp. 531
Juvenile Law in Review: Kent v. United States and Breed v. Jonesp. 532
Youths in Adult Courtp. 534
Debating the Waiver Conceptp. 536
Case in Pointp. 540
Summaryp. 540
Focus on Delinquency: Transferring Serious Juvenile Offenders to Adult Courtp. 541
The Juvenile Trial and Dispositionp. 546
The Juvenile Court and Its Jurisdictionp. 550
Agep. 551
Policy and Practice: The Juvenile Drug Court Movementp. 552
Delinquencyp. 553
Focus on Delinquency: Juvenile Delinquency in the Federal Judicial Systemp. 554
Status Offendersp. 555
Juvenile Courtroom Playersp. 556
The Prosecutor in the Juvenile Courtp. 557
The Juvenile Court Judgep. 558
The Defense Attorneyp. 560
Adjudicationp. 564
Constitutional Rights at Trialp. 566
Juvenile Law in Review: In re Gaultp. 568
Juvenile Law in Review: In re Winship and McKeiver v. Pennsylvaniap. 569
Dispositionp. 572
The Predisposition Reportp. 573
Juvenile Court Dispositionsp. 575
The Child's Right to Appealp. 575
Case in Pointp. 576
Juvenile Sentencing Structuresp. 577
Determinate versus Indeterminate Sentencingp. 578
Evaluating Tough Sentencing Lawsp. 579
The Future of Juvenile Sentencing and Serious Crimep. 579
Policy and Practice: Myth or Reality: The Juvenile Court System Is a Failurep. 581
Juvenile Law in Review: United States v. Lopez (1995)p. 582
The Death Penalty for Juvenilesp. 584
Confidentiality in Juvenile Proceedingsp. 585
Open versus Closed Hearingsp. 585
Focus on Delinquency: Juvenile Death Penaltyp. 586
Privacy of Juvenile Recordsp. 587
Juvenile Correctionsp. 593
Juvenile Probation and Community Treatmentp. 595
Juvenile Probationp. 598
The Nature of Probationp. 598
Historical Developmentp. 599
Organization and Administration of Probationp. 600
Duties of Juvenile Probation Officersp. 601
Probation Innovationsp. 605
Juvenile Intensive Probation Supervisionp. 605
Policy and Practice: Wayne County Intensive Probation Programp. 606
Electronic Monitoringp. 606
Wilderness Probationp. 608
Balanced Probationp. 609
Restitutionp. 610
Does Restitution Work?p. 611
Policy and Practice: Restitution in Utahp. 612
Community-Based Programsp. 613
Encouraging Community Correctionsp. 615
Residential Community Treatmentp. 617
Nonresidential Community Treatmentp. 619
Pros and Cons of Community Treatmentp. 619
Policy and Practice: Three Model Nonresidential Programsp. 620
Policy and Practice: A Case Study in Juvenile Justice Reformp. 622
Institutions for Juvenilesp. 626
The History of Juvenile Institutionsp. 630
Twentieth-Century Developmentsp. 630
Juvenile Institutions Today: Public and Privatep. 632
Trends in Juvenile Correctionsp. 634
The Institutionized Juvenilep. 635
Personal Characteristicsp. 637
Institutional Adjustmentp. 638
Culture of the Female Offenderp. 639
Policy and Practice: Disproportionate Minority Confinementp. 640
Correctional Treatment for Juvenilesp. 642
Focus on Delinquency: Here's a Program that Really Worksp. 643
Individual Treatment Techniques: Past and Presentp. 643
Group Treatment Techniquesp. 644
Educational, Vocational, and Recreational Programsp. 645
Treating Chronic and Violent Delinquentsp. 647
Specialized Programs for Chronic Offendersp. 647
Juvenile Boot Campsp. 648
Policy and Practice: Juvenile Rehabilitation Stategies: Wilderness Programsp. 650
Policy and Practice: About Face: A Juvenile Boot Camp Programp. 652
The Legal Right to Treatmentp. 653
Struggle for Basic Civil Rightsp. 655
Juvenile Aftercarep. 656
Focus on Delinquency: Alexander v. Boyd, and South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice (1995)p. 657
Supervisionp. 658
Aftercare Revocation Proceduresp. 660
Concluding Notes: American Delinquencyp. 665
Table of Cases
Name Index
Subject Index
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.