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Cultural Anthropology An Applied Perspective

ISBN-10: 0534556213

ISBN-13: 9780534556211

Edition: 4th 2001

Authors: Gary P. Ferraro

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Book details

List price: $97.95
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 7/17/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 414
Weight: 1.694
Language: English

Gary Ferraro is an applied anthropologist who conducted research for extended periods of time in Kenya and Swaziland. He has served as a consultant/cross-cultural trainer for large organizations (USAID, the Peace Corps, the World Bank) and large international corporations such as IBM and G.E. Plastics. He currently works with businesses to help them cope with cultural differences at home and abroad.

Prefacep. xiii
What Is Anthropology?p. 1
Physical Anthropologyp. 4
Evolutionary Record of Humansp. 4
Primatologyp. 5
Physical Variations Among Humansp. 6
Archaeologyp. 7
Anthropological Linguisticsp. 9
Cultural Anthropologyp. 11
Areas of Specializationp. 12
Guiding Principlesp. 14
Holismp. 14
Ethnocentrismp. 15
Cultural Relativismp. 15
Emic Versus Etic Approachesp. 17
Contributions of Anthropologyp. 17
Enhancing Understandingp. 17
Applicationsp. 19
Building Skills for the Twenty-first Centuryp. 20
Develop a Broad Perspectivep. 21
Appreciate Other Perspectivesp. 21
Balance Contradictionsp. 21
Emphasize Global Teamworkp. 21
Develop Cognitive Complexityp. 21
Develop Perceptual Acuityp. 21
The Bottom Line: Understanding Other Culturesp. 22
Summaryp. 23
Key Termsp. 24
Suggested Readingsp. 25
The Concept of Culturep. 26
Culture Definedp. 27
Culture Is Sharedp. 29
Culture Is Learnedp. 30
Learning Versus Instinctsp. 31
Learning Different Contentp. 32
Culture Is Taken for Grantedp. 33
Culture's Influence on Biological Processesp. 34
Our Bodies and Culturep. 35
Culture Changesp. 36
The Processes of Changep. 36
Causes of Cultural Changep. 36
Cultural Universalsp. 37
Basic Needsp. 38
Culture: Adaptive and Maladaptivep. 39
Cultures Are Generally Integratedp. 42
Cultural Interconnectionsp. 42
"Primitive" Culturesp. 46
Culture and the Individualp. 46
Applied Perspective: Anthropology and Architecturep. 32
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 37
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 43
Applied Perspective: Cross-Cultural Coachingp. 44
Summaryp. 46
Key Termsp. 47
Suggested Readingsp. 47
Applied Anthropologyp. 49
Applied Versus Pure Anthropologyp. 51
Recent History of Applied Anthropologyp. 53
Special Features of Anthropologyp. 54
Specialized Roles of Applied Anthropologistsp. 58
Examples of Applied Anthropologyp. 59
The Nestle Baby Formula Controversyp. 59
Working with Minority Prison Inmatesp. 60
An Ethnographic Study of Adolescent Drug Dealersp. 61
Marital Patterns and Population Growthp. 62
Mediating Between the Government and Trukese Villagersp. 63
The Greater Use of Anthropological Knowledgep. 65
Applied Perspective: Environmental Impact of Radiation on Marshall Islands Populationp. 56
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 58
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 60
Applied Perspective: Rebuilding Japan After World War IIp. 64
Summaryp. 67
Key Termsp. 68
Suggested Readingsp. 68
The Growth of Anthropological Theoryp. 69
Evolutionismp. 70
Evolutionism in Briefp. 72
Diffusionismp. 72
Diffusionism in Briefp. 73
American Historicismp. 73
American Historicism in Briefp. 75
Functionalismp. 75
Functionalism in Briefp. 77
Psychological Anthropologyp. 78
Psychological Anthropology in Briefp. 79
Neoevolutionismp. 80
Neoevolutionism in Briefp. 81
French Structuralismp. 81
French Structuralism in Briefp. 83
Ethnosciencep. 84
Ethnoscience in Briefp. 85
Feminist Anthropologyp. 85
Feminist Anthropology in Briefp. 87
Cultural Materialismp. 87
Cultural Materialism in Briefp. 88
Postmodernismp. 88
Postmodernism in Briefp. 90
Concluding Thoughts on Anthropological Theoryp. 90
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 71
Applied Perspective: Trees for Haitip. 74
Applied Perspective: The New Hope Antipoverty Programp. 82
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 85
Summaryp. 91
Key Termsp. 92
Suggested Readingsp. 92
Methods in Cultural Anthropologyp. 93
Preparing for Fieldworkp. 95
Stages of Field Researchp. 96
Selecting a Research Problemp. 97
Formulating a Research Designp. 97
Collecting the Datap. 98
Analyzing the Datap. 98
Interpreting the Datap. 98
Data-Gathering Techniquesp. 99
Participant-Observationp. 100
Guidelines for Participant-Observation Fieldworkp. 100
Advantages of Participant-Observationp. 102
Disadvantages of Participant-Observationp. 103
Interviewingp. 105
Structured and Unstructured Interviewsp. 105
Validity of the Data Collectedp. 106
Additional Data-Gathering Techniquesp. 106
Census Takingp. 107
Mappingp. 107
Document Analysisp. 107
Collecting Genealogiesp. 107
Photographyp. 108
Choosing a Techniquep. 110
The Pains and Gains of Fieldworkp. 110
Culture Shockp. 112
Biculturalismp. 113
Recent Trends in Ethnographic Fieldworkp. 114
Reflexive Methodsp. 114
Statistical Cross-Cultural Comparisonsp. 115
The Ethics of Cultural Anthropologyp. 116
Anthropologists' Major Areas of Responsibilityp. 117
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 99
Applied Perspective: Anthropological Research and Aidsp. 104
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 108
Contemporary Issues: Rapid Ethnographic Assessment Procedures: How Rapid is too Rapid?p. 109
Summaryp. 118
Key Termsp. 119
Suggested Readingsp. 119
Languagep. 121
The Nature of Languagep. 122
Diversity of Languagep. 122
Communication: Human Versus Nonhumanp. 124
Open and Closed Communication Systemsp. 124
Displacementp. 125
Language Acquisition Among Childrenp. 126
The Structure of Languagep. 127
Phonologyp. 127
Morphemesp. 128
Grammarp. 128
Language Changep. 129
Language Familiesp. 130
Are Some Languages Superior to Others?p. 132
Language and Culturep. 132
How Culture Influences Languagep. 132
The Nuerp. 133
U.S. Example of Cultural Emphasisp. 133
How Language Influences Culturep. 134
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesisp. 134
Language Mirrors Valuesp. 137
Linguistic Stylep. 138
Sociolinguisticsp. 140
Diglossiap. 141
Specialized Vocabulariesp. 142
Dialectsp. 142
Language, Nationalism, and Ethnic Identityp. 144
Nonverbal Communicationp. 145
Hand Gesturesp. 145
Posture (Body Stance)p. 147
Touchingp. 147
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 127
Applied Perspective: Applied Anthropology and Ebonicsp. 134
Contemporary Issues: What You Don't Know Can Hurt Youp. 146
Summaryp. 148
Key Termsp. 149
Suggested Readingsp. 149
Making a Livingp. 150
Human Adaptationp. 151
Environment and Technologyp. 153
Major Food-Getting Strategiesp. 156
Food-Collecting Societiesp. 156
The Ju/'hoansi of the Kalahari Regionp. 158
The Inuitp. 159
Food-Producing Societiesp. 162
Changes Resulting from Food Productionp. 163
Horticulturep. 164
The Bembap. 165
Pastoralismp. 167
Agriculturep. 170
Peasantryp. 171
Industrialized Food Gettingp. 172
Food-Collecting Strategies and Sciencep. 174
Applied Perspective: Community-Based Water Management in Mexicop. 154
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 163
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 172
Applied Perspective: World's Drug Companies Rely on "Primitive Medicine"p. 174
Summaryp. 176
Key Termsp. 177
Suggested Readingsp. 178
Economicsp. 179
Economics and Economic Anthropologyp. 180
Cross-Cultural Examination of Economic Systemsp. 181
The Allocation of Natural Resourcesp. 181
Food Collectorsp. 182
Pastoralistsp. 183
Horticulturalistsp. 183
Intensive Agriculturalistsp. 184
Productionp. 187
Units of Productionp. 188
Production in the Householdp. 188
Division of Laborp. 189
Gender Specializationp. 189
Age Specializationp. 190
Labor Specializationp. 191
Distribution of Goods and Servicesp. 192
Reciprocityp. 192
Generalized Reciprocityp. 192
Balanced Reciprocityp. 194
Negative Reciprocityp. 195
Redistributionp. 195
Chiefly Redistribution (Tribute)p. 196
Big Men/Feast-Giversp. 196
Bridewealthp. 197
Potlatchp. 197
Market Exchangep. 199
Standardized Currencyp. 199
Variety of Marketsp. 200
Globalization of World Economiesp. 203
Applied Perspective: Is Nepotism Always Bad?p. 184
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 190
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 193
Applied Perspective: Anthropology and Market Researchp. 200
Summaryp. 206
Key Termsp. 207
Suggested Readingsp. 207
Marriage and the Familyp. 208
Marriage and the Familyp. 209
Sexual Unionp. 210
Permanencep. 210
Common Residencep. 210
Marriage and the Family: Functionsp. 211
Mate Selection: Who Is Out of Bounds?p. 211
Natural Aversion Theoryp. 212
Inbreeding Theoryp. 212
Family Disruption Theoryp. 213
Theory of Expanding Social Alliancesp. 213
Mate Selection: Whom Should You Marry?p. 213
Rules of Exogamyp. 214
Rules of Endogamyp. 214
Arranged Marriagesp. 214
Preferential Cousin Marriagep. 217
The Levirate and Sororatep. 219
Number of Spousesp. 219
Monogamyp. 220
Polygynyp. 220
Economic Status of Women in Polygynous Societiesp. 221
Sex Ratio in Polygynous Societiesp. 221
Advantages of Polygynyp. 221
Competition Among Wivesp. 222
Polyandryp. 223
Economic Considerations of Marriagep. 224
Bridewealthp. 224
Bride Servicep. 226
Dowryp. 227
Reciprocal Exchangep. 227
Divorcep. 228
Residence Patterns: Where Do Wives and Husbands Live?p. 229
Family Structurep. 230
The Nuclear Familyp. 230
The Extended Familyp. 231
Modern-Day Family Structurep. 233
Applied Perspective: The Anthropological Study of Skid Rowp. 214
Contemporary Issues: Is Marriage A Crime?p. 218
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 225
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 231
Summaryp. 234
Key Termsp. 235
Suggested Readingsp. 235
Kinship and Descentp. 236
Kinship Definedp. 237
Cultural Rules Regarding Kinshipp. 239
Functions of Kinship Systemsp. 239
Using Kinship Diagramsp. 240
Principles of Kinship Classificationp. 241
Generationp. 241
Sex or Genderp. 241
Lineality Versus Collateralityp. 242
Consanguineal Versus Affinal Kinp. 242
Relative Agep. 242
Sex of the Connecting Relativep. 242
Social Conditionp. 242
Side of the Familyp. 243
The Formation of Descent Groupsp. 243
Unilineal Descent Groupsp. 244
Patrilineal Descent Groupsp. 244
Matrilineal Descent Groupsp. 246
Types of Unilineal Descent Groupsp. 248
The Corporate Nature of Unilineal Descent Groupsp. 250
Cognatic (Nonunilineal) Descent Groupsp. 250
Double Descentp. 250
Ambilineal Descentp. 251
Bilateral Descentp. 251
Six Basic Systems of Classificationp. 252
Eskimo Systemp. 252
Hawaiian Systemp. 252
Iroquois Systemp. 252
Omaha Systemp. 254
Crow Systemp. 254
Sudanese Systemp. 254
Kinship and the Modern Worldp. 255
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 243
Contemporary Issues: The Patrilineal Family: A Wife's Viewp. 247
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 256
Applied Perspective: The Ethnography of Homeless Youth in the United Statesp. 258
Summaryp. 259
Key Termsp. 260
Suggested Readingsp. 260
Sex and Genderp. 262
Human Sexualityp. 265
Gender Rolesp. 268
Gender and Languagep. 271
Gender Stratificationp. 272
Educationp. 276
Employmentp. 276
Reproductive Healthp. 277
Financep. 277
Gender Ideologyp. 279
Exploitation Caused by Gender Ideologyp. 281
Gender in the United Statesp. 284
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 268
Applied Perspective: Improving Child Nutrition in Malawip. 272
Applied Perspective: Using Family Planning Clinics in Ecuadorp. 278
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 285
Summaryp. 286
Key Termsp. 287
Suggested Readingsp. 287
Political Organization and Social Controlp. 289
Types of Political Organizationp. 290
Band Societiesp. 290
Tribal Societiesp. 292
Chiefdomsp. 294
State Systemsp. 295
The Rise of State Systemsp. 297
The Modern Nation-Statep. 298
Gender and the Modern Statep. 299
Changing State Systems of Governmentp. 300
Variations in Political Structuresp. 302
Social Controlp. 304
Informal Means of Social Controlp. 306
Socializationp. 306
Public Opinionp. 306
Corporate Lineagesp. 307
Supernatural Belief Systemsp. 308
Age Organizationsp. 310
Formal Means of Social Controlp. 311
Song Duelsp. 311
Intermediariesp. 311
Moots: Informal Courtsp. 312
Oaths and Ordealsp. 313
Courts and Codified Lawp. 314
Warfarep. 315
Applied Perspective: Are the Poarch Creek a Tribe?p. 296
Contemporary Issues: Can Canadians Accommodate Islamic Law?p. 304
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 308
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 315
Summaryp. 317
Key Termsp. 317
Suggested Readingsp. 319
Social Stratificationp. 320
Dimensions of Social Inequalityp. 321
Types of Societiesp. 322
Egalitarian Societiesp. 323
Rank Societiesp. 324
Stratified Societiesp. 325
Class Versus Castep. 325
Class Societiesp. 326
Caste Societiesp. 330
Racial and Ethnic Stratificationp. 334
Race and Ethnicity in the United Statesp. 337
Forms of Intergroup Relationsp. 339
Theories of Stratificationp. 342
The Functionalist Interpretationp. 342
The Conflict Theory Interpretationp. 343
Functionalists Versus Conflict Theoristsp. 343
Global Stratificationp. 344
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 327
Applied Perspective: Anthropology and Architecturep. 332
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 338
Applied Perspective: Diabetes Among Mexican Americansp. 340
Summaryp. 345
Key Termsp. 346
Suggested Readingsp. 346
Supernatural Beliefsp. 348
Defining Religionp. 349
Problems of Defining Religionp. 350
Religion and Magicp. 351
Sorcery and Witchcraftp. 353
Mythsp. 355
Functions of Religionp. 356
Social Functions of Religionp. 356
Social Controlp. 356
Conflict Resolutionp. 357
Group Solidarityp. 358
Psychological Functions of Religionp. 358
Cognitive Functionp. 358
Emotional Functionp. 359
Types of Religious Organizationp. 360
Individualistic Cultsp. 360
Shamanistic Cultsp. 361
Communal Cultsp. 363
Rites of Passagep. 363
Rites of Solidarityp. 364
Ecclesiastical Cultsp. 366
Globalization of World Religionsp. 368
Religion and Social Changep. 371
Revitalization in the Age of Globalizationp. 374
The Changing Nature of Religionp. 375
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 353
Contemporary Issues: Religious Freedom in Floridap. 357
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 365
Applied Perspective: Anthropology and the U.S. Supreme Courtp. 370
Summaryp. 376
Key Termsp. 377
Suggested Readingsp. 377
Artp. 379
What Is Art?p. 380
Differences in Art Formsp. 381
The Functions of Artp. 384
Emotional Gratification for the Individualp. 384
Social Integrationp. 385
Social Controlp. 385
Preserving or Challenging the Status Quop. 386
Graphic and Plastic Artsp. 389
Cross-Cultural Variationsp. 389
Musicp. 390
Ethnomusicologyp. 391
Dancep. 392
Functions of Dancep. 393
Dance and Other Aspects of a Culturep. 393
Verbal Artsp. 393
Mythsp. 395
Folktales and Legendsp. 395
Film: A Recent Art Formp. 398
Art: Continuity and Changep. 399
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 382
Applied Perspective: Avoiding Cultural Extinction Through Craft Industriesp. 390
Applied Perspective: Cursing in Versep. 396
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 398
Summaryp. 403
Key Termsp. 404
Suggested Readingsp. 404
Culture Change and Globalizationp. 405
Inventions/Innovationsp. 407
Diffusionp. 408
General Patterns of Diffusionp. 408
Selectivityp. 408
Reciprocityp. 409
Modificationp. 409
Likelihoodp. 410
Variablesp. 410
Acculturationp. 410
Linked Changesp. 412
Obstacles to Cultural Changep. 413
Cultural Boundary Maintenancep. 413
Languagep. 413
Clothingp. 414
Eating Styles and Foodp. 414
Relative Valuesp. 414
Cultures as Organic Wholesp. 415
Cultural Survival of Indigenous Peoplesp. 416
Change and Developmentp. 418
Globalization and World Culturesp. 424
Contemporary Issues: Cell Phones and Pedestrian Behaviorp. 412
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 415
Applied Perspective: Environment and Development in Central Hondurasp. 422
Cross-Cultural Miscuep. 425
Summaryp. 429
Key Termsp. 430
Suggested Readingsp. 430
Glossaryp. 431
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