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Research Methods and Statistics in Criminal Justice An Introduction

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ISBN-10: 0534534376

ISBN-13: 9780534534370

Edition: 3rd 2002 (Revised)

Authors: Jack Fitzgerald, Steven Cox

List price: $117.95
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Formerly a Nelson Hall title, this comprehensive introduction to the basics of criminal justice research introduces simple research methodologies and gradually advances to more complicated ones. The text describes elementary descriptive and inferential statistics, demonstrates research techniques, and examines the various scientific perspectives used in research today. This approach encourages students to think critically about the research they will encounter in their studies as well as think about ways they can conduct their own research.
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Book details

List price: $117.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 8/23/2001
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 368
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.188
Language: English

Preface
Research and Criminal Justice
Research in Everyday Life
Criminal Investigation and Scientific Research
Basic and Applied Research
Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Evaluation Research
Prediction Research
In-House, Hired-Hand, and Third-Party Research
Research in Criminal Justice: An Illustration
Review Questions
Exercises
Notes
Perspectives and Research
What Is a Perspective?
Different Kinds of Language
Principles of a Scientific Perspective
Empiricism
Objectivity
Tentativeness
Skepticism
Ethical Neutrality
Parsimony
Determinism
Publication
Replication
Social Science as Science
An Example of a Social Science Perspective: Symbolic Interactionism
Other Perspectives in Criminal Justice Studies
Theory
Scope
Integration
Verification
Relationships Among Theory, Research, and Methodology
Research Ethics
Anonymity and Confidentiality
Risk and Voluntary Informed Consent
Deception in Research
Sharing Results and Benefits with Research Participants
Research Ethics and Other Standards of Fairness
Responsibility to Scientific Community
Current Critiques of the Scientific Perspective
Review Questions
Exercises
Notes
An Introduction to Research Methodology and Design
Choosing a Research Topic
Identifying Units of Analysis
Defining Concepts and Variables
Types of Definitions
Variables
Validity, Reliability, and Precision in Categorizations and Measurements
Validity
Reliability
Precision
Choosing a Research Design
Exploratory Research
Descriptive Research
Explanatory Research
Internal and External Threats to the Validity of Research Results
Triangulation
A Final Note About the Research Process
Review Questions
Exercises
Notes
Sampling
Probability Sampling
Random Sampling
Stratified Random Sampling and Proportionate Sampling
Disproportionate Sampling
Systematic Sampling
Cluster Sampling
Multistage Sampling
Nonprobability Sampling
Sample Size
Determining the Population to Be Sampled
Review Questions
Exercises
Notes
Research Tools and Techniques: Survey Research Through Questionnaires and Interviews
Questionnaires
Types of Questions
Constructing Questionnaires
Pretesting Questionnaires
Precoding Questionnaires
A Sample Questionnaire
Increasing Response Rates
Interviews
Telephone Surveys
Internet Surveys
Review Questions
Exercises
Notes
Research Tools and Techniques: Document Research, Physical Evidence, Observation, and Experimentation
Document Research
Content Analysis
Observation
Recording and Coding
Accuracy of Observations
Physical Evidence
Experiments
Entering the Field
Review Questions
Exercises
Notes
An Introduction to Descriptive Statistics
Measurement and Scales
Continuous and Discrete Variables
Levels of Measurement
Describing the Data
Raw Numbers
Percentages
Rates
Frequency Distributions
Measures of Central Tendency
The Mean
The Median
The Mode
Selecting Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Dispersion
Range
Average Deviation
Standard Deviation
Indicators of Location in a Distribution
Distributions: Symmetrical and Otherwise
Unimodal and Multimodal Distributions
The Normal Distribution and Standard Scores
Review Questions
Exercises
Notes
Descriptive Statistics: Examining Relationships Between Two or More Variables Through Cross-Tabulation
Comparing Frequency Distributions
Fundamentals of Cross-Tabulation
Constructing a Cross-Tabulation
Collapsing Categories
Using Percentages in Cross-Tabulation
Elaboration Analysis
Explanation
Interpretation
Specification
No Apparent Relationship in the Zero-Order Table
Some Examples of Elaboration Analysis
Review Questions
Exercises
Notes
Descriptive Statistics: Measuring Relationships Between Two or More Variables Through Regression and Correlation Analysis
Scattergrams
Linear and Nonlinear Relationships
Regression Analysis
Correlation Analysis
Multiple and Partial Correlation
Correlation and Cross-Tabulation
Diagonals
Other Statistical Measures of Association
Review Questions
Exercises
Notes
An Introduction to Inferential Statistics and Parameter Estimation
Determining Probabilities Empirically and Mathematically
Sampling Distributions and Sampling Error
The Binomial Distribution
Sampling Distributions for Other Sample Statistics
A Few Words About Nonparametric Statistics
Point and Interval Estimation
Confidence Intervals and Confidence Limits
Review Questions
Exercises
Note
Inferential Statistics: Hypothesis Testing
Testing Hypotheses
Type I and Type II Error
Significance Level
One- and Two-Tailed Tests
Difference Between Means Test (Student's t)
Analysis of Variance (One Way)
Assessing Relationships Between Variables in Tables
Chi Square
Significance Tests for the Correlation Coefficient
Some Final Cautions
Review Questions
Exercises
Notes
Common Errors in Presenting and Interpreting Research Findings
The Trappings of Science
Scientific Costumes and Props
Quoting or Relying on Authorities
Using Technical Vocabulary
The Many Uses and Misuses of Number
Graphs: Their Uses and Misuses
Bar Graphs
Pie Graphs
Pictographs
Hazards in Interpreting Graphs
Correlation and Causation
Hypothesis Testing and Probabilities
Review Questions
Exercises
Note
Preparing and Reading Research Reports
The Title
Acknowledging Sources of Support
The Abstract
The Introduction
The Literature Review
Initiating the Literature Review
Completing the Literature Review
Referencing
Methods
Presentation and Analysis of Data
The Conclusion
The Bibliography or List of References
Appendices
A Final Note on Research Reports
Review Questions
Exercises
Note
Computers in Criminal Justice Research
Components of the Computer
Preparing Data for Computer Analysis
Current Computer Applications in Criminal Justice
Limitations of Computers
The Internet and Scientific Research
Review Questions
Exercises
Notes
Conclusions
Table of Random Numbers
Areas Under the Normal Curve
Student's t Distributions Table
F Distribution Tables
Chi Square Table
Excerpts from the Code of Ethics of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Glossary
Index