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Data Analysis and Interpretation in the Behavioral Sciences

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ISBN-10: 0534529860

ISBN-13: 9780534529864

Edition: 2003

Authors: Eugene B. Zechmeister, Emil J. Posavac

List price: $274.95
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Zechmeister and Posavac's unique, progressive pedagogical framework presents students with a model of analysis and interpretation called "I-D-E-A". This cutting edge model leads students through the processes of data inspection (I), description (D), estimating (E) confidence in their results, and announcing (A) their findings. Their friendly writing style and systematic approach to statistics involves the student in the topics presented. The authors stress the important first stage of data inspection and also demonstrate how both confidence intervals and effect sizes are complementary to traditional null hypothesis testing. Throughout the book, the authors emphasize the understanding and…    
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Book details

List price: $274.95
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 9/10/2002
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 480
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.288
Language: English

Emil J. Posavac (Ph.D., University of Illinois, Champaign) is Professor Emeritus of Psychology at Loyola University of Chicago where he served as director of the Applied Social Psychology Graduate Program and chairman of the Psychology Department. He has consulted with a number of public and private organizations. He has published over sixty papers and chapters, edited or co-edited six volumes on program evaluation and applied social psychology, and written numerous evaluation reports for health care and educational institutions. He has written a textbook (with Eugene B. Zechmeister) on statistical analysis based on emerging orientations that emphasize a more complete understanding and…    

Preface to the Instructor
Preface to the Student
Introduction to the I-D-E-A Model of Data Analysis and Interpretation
Introduction
What Is/Are Data?
Why (Specifically) and How (Generally) Do Scientists Do Research?
What Is an Experiment?
How Are Behavior and Events Measured?
What Is the Role of Statistics in Behavioral Science Research?
How Do I Get a Sample of Behavior?
What Question Are You Asking?
How Confident Can I Be of My Answer?
An I-D-E-A for Data Analysis and Interpretation
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
Inspecting and Describing Data from One Group
Inspecting Data Point by Point
Introduction
Cleaning Data
How to Spot Suspicious Data Points
A Hypothetical Data Set
Using Tabular Inspection Methods
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
Inspecting Distributions of Data
Introduction
Using Histograms to Inspect Distributions
Frequency Polygons
Graphing Nominal Data
Transforming Data
What to Do About Skewed Distributions
Discarding Data
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
Describing Data From One Group
Introduction
How Do We Describe Data?
What Type of Data Are We Seeking to Describe?
Measures of Central Tendency
How Is Variability (Dispersion) Measured?
The Standard Deviation and Standard Scores
Data Description and the Normal Curve
How Do We Use a Normal Distribution to Describe the Relative Positions of Scores?
Comparing Apples and Oranges Again (or IQ and Height)
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
I-D-E-A for a Study Involving a Single Mean
Estimating Confidence in a Mean
Introduction
Point Estimates and Interval Estimates
What Is Sampling Variability?
The Sampling Distribution of the Mean
Probability and Normal Distributions
Probability and the Sampling Distribution of the Mean
How Do We Use a Sampling Distribution to Estimate Confidence in Our Finding?
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
Constructing a Confidence Interval and Announcing Results
Introduction
The t Distribution
Establishing a Confidence Interval for the Population Mean Based on the t Distribution
Interpreting Confidence Intervals
Increasing Precision and Confidence in Our Estimate
A Slight Variation When There Is a Hypothesized Population Mean
Announcing Results Based on a Single-Sample Mean
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
I-D-E-A When There Are Two Means
Inspecting and Describing Data From Two Groups
Introduction
Getting Two Sets of Data to Compare
Inspecting Two Distributions
Describing Two Distributions
Describing the Difference Between Two Samples
Repeated Measures Designs
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
Estimating Using Confidence Intervals
Introduction
Constructing Confidence Intervals for the Difference Between Two Means
What Makes Confidence Intervals Wide or Narrow?
Interpreting Differences Between Means
What Does the Magnitude of the Effect Size Mean?
Confidence Intervals for Difference Scores
Effect Sizes for Difference Scores
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
Estimating Using Null Hypothesis Significance Testing
Introduction
Testing Hypotheses
Rejection Criteria
The t Test for Independent Groups
Assumptions Underlying t Tests
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
Interpreting and Announcing Results
Introduction
Correctly Interpreting Null Hypothesis Significance Testing
Type I and Type II Errors
Pulling It All Together and Announcing Results
Presenting Exact Probabilities
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
I-D-E-A When There Are More Than Two Means
Inspecting, Describing, and Estimating Using Confidence Intervals
Introduction
Inspecting Data from an Independent Groups Design with One Independent Variable That Has Three or More Levels
Describing the Data: Measures of Central Tendency and Variability
Looking for Covariation
Constructing Confidence Intervals for an Independent Groups Experiment
Error Bars versus Confidence Intervals
Obtaining a Measure of Effect Size for an Independent Groups Experiment with One Independent Variable
Decisions About Differences Between Two Means in a Single-Factor Experiment
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
Estimating Confidence Using Null Hypothesis Significance Testing and Announcing Results
Introduction
The Role of NHST in an Independent Groups Experiment with One Independent Variable (the E in I-D-E-A)
The Logic of ANOVA
An Illustration of ANOVA: Does Type of Presentation Affect Recall?
Measures of Strength of Association for Independent Groups Designs
Two-Group Comparisons in a Multi-Group Experiment
Assessing Power in an Independent Groups Experiment
Announcing Results (the A in I-D-E-A)
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
I-D-E-A For Complex Designs
Introduction
Complex (Factorial) Designs
Inspecting Data from a Complex (Factorial) Design
Describing Results of a Complex Design: Cell Means, Main Effects, and Interaction
Constructing Confidence Intervals for Means in a Complex Design
Beyond 2 X 2
ANOVA for a Complex Design
Effect Size Measures for Complex Designs
Announcing Results of a Complex Design
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
I-D-E-A When Examining the Relationship Between Two Variables
Inspecting and Describing Correlational Data
Introduction
The Analysis Problem
Constructing Scatterplots
Describing Relationships Quantitatively
The Original Correlation Formula
Changing Scales
What We Have Done So Far
Inspecting the Relationships Between Two Variables
Limitations of Correlational Analyses
What Questions Do We Ask that Involve Two Variables?
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
Estimating Confidence Using Confidence Intervals
Introduction
Confidence Intervals for Correlation Coefficients
Interpreting Confidence Intervals of Correlation Coefficients
Effect Sizes of Correlation Coefficients
Interpreting the Effect Size of Correlations
Avoiding Common Misunderstandings of Correlations
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
Estimating Confidence Using Null Hypothesis Significance Testing and Announcing Results
Introduction
Null Hypotheses Involving Correlation Coefficients
Testing Whether r is Different from .00
Testing Whether r is Greater than .00
Using a Table Instead of the t Formula
Testing Whether r Differs from a Known [rho]
Testing Whether Two Independent Correlations Differ from Each Other
Pulling It All Together
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
Making Predictions
Introduction
Graphing Linear Equations
Graphing Variables Used in the Behavioral Sciences
Calculating a Regression Equation
Using Regression Predictions
An Important Additional Detail About the Precision of Predictions
Announcing the Results of a Regression Analysis
Cautions in Using Regression Equations to Make Predictions
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
I-D-E-A for Studies with Nominal Data
I-D-E-A with Nominal Data
Introduction
What Question Are You Asking?
The I-D-E-A Model for a Proportion from a Single (Large) Sample
NHST with Nominal Data
Chi-square (x[superscript 2]) Goodness-of-Fit Test
Chi-square (x[superscript 2]) Test of Independence
Calculating an Effect Size for a Chi-Square Test of Independence
Announcing Results of a Chi-Square Test of Independence
What You Have Learned and the Next Step
Key Concepts
Answers to Your Turn Questions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises
Appendix A
Proportions of Area Under the Standard Normal Curve
Critical Values of t
Critical Values of F
Transformation of r to Z[subscript r]
Critical Values of r
Critical Values of Chi-Square (x[superscript 2])
A Brief Introduction to Power Analysis
References
Index