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Preface to the Instructor | |

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Preface to the Student | |

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Introduction to the I-D-E-A Model of Data Analysis and Interpretation | |

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Introduction | |

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What Is/Are Data? | |

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Why (Specifically) and How (Generally) Do Scientists Do Research? | |

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What Is an Experiment? | |

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How Are Behavior and Events Measured? | |

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What Is the Role of Statistics in Behavioral Science Research? | |

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How Do I Get a Sample of Behavior? | |

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What Question Are You Asking? | |

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How Confident Can I Be of My Answer? | |

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An I-D-E-A for Data Analysis and Interpretation | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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Inspecting and Describing Data from One Group | |

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Inspecting Data Point by Point | |

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Introduction | |

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Cleaning Data | |

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How to Spot Suspicious Data Points | |

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A Hypothetical Data Set | |

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Using Tabular Inspection Methods | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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Inspecting Distributions of Data | |

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Introduction | |

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Using Histograms to Inspect Distributions | |

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Frequency Polygons | |

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Graphing Nominal Data | |

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Transforming Data | |

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What to Do About Skewed Distributions | |

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Discarding Data | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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Describing Data From One Group | |

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Introduction | |

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How Do We Describe Data? | |

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What Type of Data Are We Seeking to Describe? | |

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Measures of Central Tendency | |

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How Is Variability (Dispersion) Measured? | |

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The Standard Deviation and Standard Scores | |

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Data Description and the Normal Curve | |

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How Do We Use a Normal Distribution to Describe the Relative Positions of Scores? | |

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Comparing Apples and Oranges Again (or IQ and Height) | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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I-D-E-A for a Study Involving a Single Mean | |

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Estimating Confidence in a Mean | |

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Introduction | |

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Point Estimates and Interval Estimates | |

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What Is Sampling Variability? | |

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The Sampling Distribution of the Mean | |

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Probability and Normal Distributions | |

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Probability and the Sampling Distribution of the Mean | |

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How Do We Use a Sampling Distribution to Estimate Confidence in Our Finding? | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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Constructing a Confidence Interval and Announcing Results | |

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Introduction | |

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The t Distribution | |

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Establishing a Confidence Interval for the Population Mean Based on the t Distribution | |

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Interpreting Confidence Intervals | |

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Increasing Precision and Confidence in Our Estimate | |

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A Slight Variation When There Is a Hypothesized Population Mean | |

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Announcing Results Based on a Single-Sample Mean | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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I-D-E-A When There Are Two Means | |

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Inspecting and Describing Data From Two Groups | |

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Introduction | |

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Getting Two Sets of Data to Compare | |

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Inspecting Two Distributions | |

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Describing Two Distributions | |

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Describing the Difference Between Two Samples | |

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Repeated Measures Designs | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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Estimating Using Confidence Intervals | |

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Introduction | |

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Constructing Confidence Intervals for the Difference Between Two Means | |

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What Makes Confidence Intervals Wide or Narrow? | |

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Interpreting Differences Between Means | |

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What Does the Magnitude of the Effect Size Mean? | |

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Confidence Intervals for Difference Scores | |

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Effect Sizes for Difference Scores | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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Estimating Using Null Hypothesis Significance Testing | |

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Introduction | |

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Testing Hypotheses | |

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Rejection Criteria | |

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The t Test for Independent Groups | |

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Assumptions Underlying t Tests | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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Interpreting and Announcing Results | |

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Introduction | |

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Correctly Interpreting Null Hypothesis Significance Testing | |

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Type I and Type II Errors | |

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Pulling It All Together and Announcing Results | |

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Presenting Exact Probabilities | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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I-D-E-A When There Are More Than Two Means | |

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Inspecting, Describing, and Estimating Using Confidence Intervals | |

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Introduction | |

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Inspecting Data from an Independent Groups Design with One Independent Variable That Has Three or More Levels | |

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Describing the Data: Measures of Central Tendency and Variability | |

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Looking for Covariation | |

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Constructing Confidence Intervals for an Independent Groups Experiment | |

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Error Bars versus Confidence Intervals | |

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Obtaining a Measure of Effect Size for an Independent Groups Experiment with One Independent Variable | |

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Decisions About Differences Between Two Means in a Single-Factor Experiment | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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Estimating Confidence Using Null Hypothesis Significance Testing and Announcing Results | |

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Introduction | |

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The Role of NHST in an Independent Groups Experiment with One Independent Variable (the E in I-D-E-A) | |

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The Logic of ANOVA | |

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An Illustration of ANOVA: Does Type of Presentation Affect Recall? | |

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Measures of Strength of Association for Independent Groups Designs | |

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Two-Group Comparisons in a Multi-Group Experiment | |

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Assessing Power in an Independent Groups Experiment | |

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Announcing Results (the A in I-D-E-A) | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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I-D-E-A For Complex Designs | |

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Introduction | |

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Complex (Factorial) Designs | |

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Inspecting Data from a Complex (Factorial) Design | |

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Describing Results of a Complex Design: Cell Means, Main Effects, and Interaction | |

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Constructing Confidence Intervals for Means in a Complex Design | |

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Beyond 2 X 2 | |

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ANOVA for a Complex Design | |

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Effect Size Measures for Complex Designs | |

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Announcing Results of a Complex Design | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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I-D-E-A When Examining the Relationship Between Two Variables | |

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Inspecting and Describing Correlational Data | |

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Introduction | |

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The Analysis Problem | |

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Constructing Scatterplots | |

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Describing Relationships Quantitatively | |

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The Original Correlation Formula | |

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Changing Scales | |

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What We Have Done So Far | |

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Inspecting the Relationships Between Two Variables | |

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Limitations of Correlational Analyses | |

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What Questions Do We Ask that Involve Two Variables? | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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Estimating Confidence Using Confidence Intervals | |

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Introduction | |

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Confidence Intervals for Correlation Coefficients | |

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Interpreting Confidence Intervals of Correlation Coefficients | |

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Effect Sizes of Correlation Coefficients | |

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Interpreting the Effect Size of Correlations | |

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Avoiding Common Misunderstandings of Correlations | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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Estimating Confidence Using Null Hypothesis Significance Testing and Announcing Results | |

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Introduction | |

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Null Hypotheses Involving Correlation Coefficients | |

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Testing Whether r is Different from .00 | |

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Testing Whether r is Greater than .00 | |

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Using a Table Instead of the t Formula | |

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Testing Whether r Differs from a Known [rho] | |

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Testing Whether Two Independent Correlations Differ from Each Other | |

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Pulling It All Together | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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Making Predictions | |

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Introduction | |

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Graphing Linear Equations | |

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Graphing Variables Used in the Behavioral Sciences | |

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Calculating a Regression Equation | |

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Using Regression Predictions | |

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An Important Additional Detail About the Precision of Predictions | |

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Announcing the Results of a Regression Analysis | |

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Cautions in Using Regression Equations to Make Predictions | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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I-D-E-A for Studies with Nominal Data | |

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I-D-E-A with Nominal Data | |

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Introduction | |

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What Question Are You Asking? | |

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The I-D-E-A Model for a Proportion from a Single (Large) Sample | |

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NHST with Nominal Data | |

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Chi-square (x[superscript 2]) Goodness-of-Fit Test | |

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Chi-square (x[superscript 2]) Test of Independence | |

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Calculating an Effect Size for a Chi-Square Test of Independence | |

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Announcing Results of a Chi-Square Test of Independence | |

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What You Have Learned and the Next Step | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Answers to Your Turn Questions | |

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Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Problems and Exercises | |

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Appendix A | |

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Proportions of Area Under the Standard Normal Curve | |

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Critical Values of t | |

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Critical Values of F | |

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Transformation of r to Z[subscript r] | |

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Critical Values of r | |

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Critical Values of Chi-Square (x[superscript 2]) | |

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A Brief Introduction to Power Analysis | |

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References | |

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Index | |