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Fundamentals of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

ISBN-10: 052185637X

ISBN-13: 9780521856379

Edition: 2006

Authors: James C. McWilliams

List price: $122.00
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Description:

Earth's atmosphere and oceans exhibit complex patterns of fluid motion over a vast range of space and time scales. These patterns combine to establish the climate in response to solar radiation that is inhomogeneously absorbed by the materials comprising air, water, and land. Spontaneous, energetic variability arises from instabilities in the planetary-scale circulations, appearing in many different forms such as waves, jets, vortices, boundary layers, and turbulence. Geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) is the science of all these types of fluid motion. This textbook is a concise and accessible introduction to GFD for intermediate to advanced students of the physics, chemistry, and/or biology of Earth's fluid environment. The book was developed from the author's many years of teaching a first-year graduate course at the University of California, Los Angeles. Readers are expected to be familiar with physics and mathematics at the level of general dynamics (mechanics) and partial differential equations.
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Book details

List price: $122.00
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 7/20/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 266
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.584
Language: English

Preface
Symbols
Purposes and value of geophysical fluid dynamics
Fundamental dynamics
Fluid dynamics
Representations
Governing equations
Boundary and initial conditions
Energy conservation
Divergence, vorticity, and strain rate
Oceanic approximations
Mass and density
Momentum
Boundary conditions
Atmospheric approximations
Equation of state for an ideal gas
A stratified resting state
Buoyancy oscillations and convection
Hydrostatic balance
Pressure coordinates
Earth's rotation
Rotating coordinates
Geostrophic balance
Inertial oscillations
Barotropic and vortex dynamics
Barotropic equations
Circulation
Vorticity and potential vorticity
Divergence and diagnostic force balance
Stationary, inviscid flows
Vortex movement
Point vortices
Chaos and limits of predictability
Barotropic and centrifugal instability
Rayleigh's criterion for vortex stability
Centrifugal instability
Barotropic instability of parallel flows
Eddy-mean interaction
Eddy viscosity and diffusion
Emergence of coherent vortices
Two-dimensional turbulence
Rotating shallow-water and wave dynamics
Rotating shallow-water equations
Integral and parcel invariants
Linear wave solutions
Geostrophic mode
Inertia-gravity waves
Kelvin waves
Geostrophic adjustment
Gravity wave steepening: bores and breakers
Stokes drift and material transport
Quasigeostrophy
Rossby waves
Rossby-wave emission
Vortex propagation on the �-plane
Eastern boundary Kelvin wave
Baroclinic and jet dynamics
Layered hydrostatic model
Two-layer equations
N-layer equations
Vertical modes
Baroclinic instability
Unstable modes
Upshear phase tilt
Eddy heat flux
Effects on the mean flow
Turbulent baroclinic zonal jet
Posing the jet problem
Equilibrium velocity and buoyancy structure
Zonal momentum balance
Potential vorticity homogenization
Meridional overturning circulation and mass balance
Meridional heat balance
Maintenance of the general circulation
Rectification by Rossby-wave radiation
Boundary-layer and wind-gyre dynamics
Planetary boundary layer
Boundary-layer approximations
The shear boundary layer
Eddy-viscosity closure
Bottom Ekman layer
Oceanic surface Ekman layer
Vortex spin down
Turbulent Ekman layer
Oceanic wind gyre and western boundary layer
Posing the gyre problem
Interior and boundary-layer circulations
Application to real gyres
Turbulent baroclinic wind gyres
Afterword
Exercises
References
Index