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Introduction to Optical Stellar Interferometry

ISBN-10: 0521828724

ISBN-13: 9780521828727

Edition: 2006

Authors: A. Labeyrie, S. G. Lipson, P. Nisenson

List price: $144.00
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During the last two decades, optical stellar interferometry has become an important tool in astronomical investigations requiring spatial resolution well beyond that of traditional telescopes. This is the first book to be written on the subject. The authors provide an extended introduction discussing basic physical and atmospheric optics, which establishes the framework necessary to present the ideas and practice of interferometry as applied to the astronomical scene. They follow with an overview of historical, operational and planned interferometric observatories, and a selection of important astrophysical discoveries made with them. Finally, they present some as-yet untested ideas for instruments both on the ground and in space which may allow us to image details of planetary systems beyond our own.
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Book details

List price: $144.00
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 6/29/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 360
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.914
Language: English

Antoine Labeyrie is Professor at the Coll�ge de France. During his distinguished career he has made many fundamental contributions to high resolution optical astronomy.

Peter Nisenson studied physics and optics before becoming a professional astronomer at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. His achievements include developing image detectors that can measure individual photon events.

List of Illustrations
Historical introduction
About this book
Basic concepts: a qualitative introduction
A qualitative introduction to the basic concepts and ideas
Young's experiment (1801-3)
Using Young's slits to measure the size of a light source
Some basic wave concepts
Plane waves
Huygens' principle
Electromagnetic waves and photons
Interference, diffraction and coherence
Interference and diffraction
Interference and interferometers
Diffraction using the scalar wave approximation
Fraunhofer diffraction patterns of some simple apertures
The point spread function
The optical transfer function
Coherent light
The effect of uncertainties in the frequency and wave vector
Coherent light and its importance to interferometry
Partial coherence
Spatial coherence
Temporal coherence
A quantitative discussion of coherence
Coherence function
The relationship between the coherence function and fringe visibility
Van Cittert-Zernike theorem
Fluctuations in light waves
A statistical model for quasimonochromatic light
The second-order coherence function
Photon noise
Aperture synthesis
Aperture synthesis
The optics of aperture synthesis
Sampling the (u, v) plane
The optimal geometry of multiple telescope arrangements
From data to image: the phase problem
Phase closure
Image restoration and the crowding limitation
Algorithmic image restoration methods
The crowding limitation
Signal detection for aperture synthesis
Wave mixing and heterodyne recording
A quantum interpretation of aperture synthesis
A lecture demonstration of aperture synthesis
Optical effects of the atmosphere
A qualitative description of optical effects of the atmosphere
Quantitative measures of the atmospheric aberrations
Kolmogorov's (1941) description of turbulence
Parameters describing the optical effects of turbulence: Correlation and structure functions, B(r) and D(r)
Phase fluctuations in a wave propagating through the atmosphere
Fried's parameter r[subscript 0] describes the size of the atmospheric correlation region
Correlation between phase fluctuations in waves with different angles of incidence: the isoplanatic patch
Temporal fluctuations
The wind-driven "frozen turbulence" hypothesis
Frequency spectrum of fluctuations
Intensity fluctuations: twinkling
Dependence on Height
Dependence of atmospheric effects on the wavelength
Adaptive optics
Measuring the wavefront distortion
Deformable mirrors
Tip-tilt correction
Guide stars
Short exposure images: speckle patterns
A model for a speckle image
Single-aperture techniques
Masking the aperture of a large telescope
Using the whole aperture: speckle interferometry
Theory of speckle interferometry
Experimental speckle interferometry
Some early results of speckle interferometry
Speckle imaging
The Knox-Thompson algorithm
Speckle masking, or triple correlation
Spectral speckle masking
Intensity interferometry
Intensity fluctuations and the second-order coherence function
The classical wave interpretation
The quantum interpretation
Estimating the sensitivity of fluctuation correlations
The Narrabri intensity interferometer
The electronic correlator
Data analysis
Double stars
Stellar diameters
Limb darkening
Astronomical results
Retrieving the phase
Amplitude interferometry: techniques and instruments
The Michelson stellar interferometer
The Narrabri Intensity Interferometer
Aperture masking
What do we demand of an interferometer?
The components of modern amplitude interferometers
Subapertures and telescopes
Beam lines and their dispersion correction
Correction of angular dispersion
Path-length equalizers or delay lines
Beam-reducing optics
Beam combiners
Semireflective beam-combiners
Optical fiber and integrated optical beam-combiners
Star tracking and tip-tilt correction
Fringe dispersion and tracking
Estimating the fringe parameters
Techniques for measuring in the photon-starved region
Modern interferometers with two subapertures
Heterodyne interferometers
Interferometre a 2 Telescopes (I2T)
Grand interferometre a deux telescopes (GI2T)
The Mark III Interferometer
Sydney University stellar interferometer (SUSI)
The large binocular telescope (LBT)
The Mikata optical and infrared array (MIRA-I.2)
Palomar testbed interferometer (PTI)
Keck interferometer
Interferometers with more than two subapertures
The Cambridge optical aperture synthesis telescope (COAST)
Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA)
Infrared optical telescope array (IOTA)
Navy prototype optical interferometer (NPOI)
The Berkeley infrared spatial interferometer (ISI)
Very large telescope interferometer (VLTI)
The hypertelescope
Imaging with very high resolution using multimirror telescopes
The physical optics of pupil densification
A random array of apertures
A periodic array of apertures
The field of view of a hypertelescope and the crowding limitation
Hypertelescope architectures
Michelson's stellar interferometer as a hypertelescope, and multi-aperture extensions
Hypertelescope versions of multitelescope interferometers
Carlina hypertelescopes
A fiber-optical version of the hypertelescope
Experiments on a hypertelescope system
Nulling and coronagraphy
Searching for extrasolar planets and life
Planet detection methods
The relative luminosities of a star and planet
Requirements for imaging planet surface features
Apodization using binary masks
Apodization using phase masks
Nulling methods in interferometers
Bracewell's single-pixel nulling in nonimaging interferometers
Bracewell nulling in imaging interferometers
Achromatic nulling in Bracewell interferometers
Starlight leakage in nulling interferometers
Imaging coronagraphy
The Lyot coronagraph in its original and stellar versions
The Roddier-Roddier phase-dot coronagraph
Four-quadrant phase-mask and phase-spiral coronagraphs
The achromatic interference coronagraph
Elementary modeling of mask coronagraphs
Mirror bumpiness tolerance calculated with Marechal's equation
High contrast coronagraphy and apodization
Adaptive coherent correction of mirror bumpiness
Adaptive hologram within the coronagraph
Incoherent cleaning of recorded images
Comparison of coherent and incoherent cleaning
A sampling of interferometric science
Interferometric science
Stellar measurements and imaging
Stellar diameters and limb darkening
Star-spots, hot spots
Pulsating stars
Young stellar object disks and jets
Dust shells, Wolf-Rayets
Binary stars
Galactic and extragalactic sources
The galactic center
Solar system
The Galilean satellites
Asteroid imaging
Brown dwarfs
Solar feature imaging and dynamics measurements
Future ground and space projects
Future ground-based projects
New ground-based long-baseline interferometers
The optical very large array (OVLA)
Toward large Carlina hypertelescopes
Comparison of OVLA and Carlina concepts
Comparing compact and exploded ELTs
Coupling telescopes through fibers: the OHANA project at Mauna Kea
Future space projects
Flotillas of mirrors
Terrestrial planet finder (TPF)
Space interferometry mission (SIM)
The exo-Earth imager (EEI)
Simulated Exo-Earth-Imager images
Some speculations on identifying life from colored patches
Extreme baselines for a Neutron Star Imager
Electromagnetic waves: a summary
Plane and spherical electromagnetic waves
Energy and momentum in waves
Geometrical phase in wave propagation
Fourier theory
The Fourier transform
Some simple examples
Sampling and aliasing
Fraunhofer diffraction
Random objects and their diffraction patterns: speckle, images