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Argumentation Schemes

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ISBN-10: 0521723744

ISBN-13: 9780521723749

Edition: 2008

Authors: Douglas Walton, Christopher Reed, Fabrizio Macagno

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This book provides a systematic analysis of many common argumentation schemes and a compendium of 96 schemes. The study of these schemes, or forms of argument that capture stereotypical patterns of human reasoning, is at the core of argumentation research. Surveying all aspects of argumentation schemes from the ground up, the book takes the reader from the elementary exposition in the first chapter to the latest state of the art in the research efforts to formalize and classify the schemes, outlined in the last chapter. It provides a systematic and comprehensive account, with notation suitable for computational applications that increasingly make use of argumentation schemes.
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Book details

Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 8/4/2008
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 456
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.342
Language: English

Fabrizio Macagno is a postdoctoral researcher at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal, where he teaches courses on argumentation theory and conducts research in the field of argumentation and communication. He is doing research in the field of argumentation and philosophy of language in cooperation with the University of Windsor, Ontario. His research interests are focused on the relationship between argumentation and semantics, which he investigates from epistemological, logical and linguistic perspectives. He co-authored Argumentation Schemes (Cambridge University Press, 2008). His articles have appeared in international peer reviewed journals such as Pragmatics and Cognition, the…    

Basic Tools in the State of the Art
Introducing Argumentation Schemes
Argument from Position to Know and Expert Opinion
Critical Questions
Enthymemes, Schemes, and Critical Questions
Argument Diagramming Tools
Introducing Araucaria
Problems to be Solved
How Are Schemes Binding?
Directions for AI
Where We Go from Here
Schemes for Argument from Analogy, Classification, and Precedent
The Case of the Drug-Sniffing Dog
Argument from Analogy as Treated in Logic Textbooks
Is Argument from Analogy Deductive or Inductive?
The Schemes for Argument from Analogy
Argument from Analogy as a Defeasible Form of Argument
Arguments from Classification
Arguments Based on Rules and Classifications
Argument from Precedent and Practical Argument from Analogy
The Case of the Drug-Sniffing Dog Again
Knowledge-Related, Practical, and Other Schemes
Arguments from Knowledge
Practical Reasoning
Lack-of-Knowledge Arguments
Arguments from Consequences
Fear and Danger Appeals
Arguments from Alternatives and Opposites
Pleas for Help and Excuses
Composition and Division Arguments
Slippery Slope Arguments
Attacking Verbal Classification and Slippery Slope Arguments
Arguments from Generally Accepted Opinions, Commitment, and Character
Arguments from Popular Opinion
Variants of the Basic Form
Argument from Commitment
Arguments from Inconsistency
Ethotic Arguments
Circumstantial Ad Hominem
Argument from Bias
Ad Hominem Strategies to Rebut a Personal Attack
Causal Argumentation Schemes
The Problem of Causation
Argument from Cause to Effect
Argument from Effect to Cause
Argument from Correlation to Cause
Cases in Point
Causal Argumentation at Stages of an Investigation
Causal Assertions as Defeasible
Toward a System of Analysis and Classification
Dialectical and Bayesian Models of Causal Argumentation
Schemes and Enthymemes
Preliminary Discussion of the Problem
A Deductive Case
Limitations of Deductive Analysis
Use of Argumentation Schemes in Analysis
Use of Schemes in Analyzing Weak Arguments
Limitations of Schemes
Discussion of Cases
The Attribution Problem
The Dialectical Component of the Enthymeme Machine
Attack, Rebuttal, and Refutation
Attacking, Questioning, Rebutting, and Refuting
Older Theories of Refutation
Newer Theories of Refutation
Argumentation Schemes and Critical Questions
Toward a Pragmatic Theory of Refutation
Different Kinds of Opposition
Internal and External Refutation
A Case Study of Combined Rebuttals
The Problem of Argument from Opposites
Problems about Critical Questions and Refutations
The History of Schemes
Aristotle on the Topics
From Abelard to the Thirteenth Century
Fourteenth-Century Logic
Topics in the Renaissance and the Port Royal Logic
Modern Theories of Schemes
A User's Compendium of Schemes
Argument from Position to Know
Argument from Expert Opinion
Argument from Witness Testimony
Argument from Popular Opinion (and Subtypes)
Argument from Popular Practice
Argument from Example
Argument from Analogy
Practical Reasoning from Analogy
Argument from Composition
Argument from Division
Argument from Oppositions
Rhetorical Argument from Oppositions
Argument from Alternatives
Argument from Verbal Classification
Argument from Definition to Verbal Classification
Argument from Vagueness of a Verbal Classification
Argument from Arbitrariness of a Verbal Classification
Argument from Interaction of Act and Person
Argument from Values
Argument from Sacrifice
Argument from the Group and Its Members
Practical Reasoning
Two-Person Practical Reasoning
Argument from Waste
Argument from Sunk Costs
Argument from Ignorance
Epistemic Argument from Ignorance
Argument from Cause to Effect
Argument from Correlation to Cause
Argument from Sign
Abductive Argumentation Scheme
Argument from Evidence to a Hypothesis
Argument from Consequences
Pragmatiic Argument from Alternatives
Argument from Threat
Argument from Fear Appeal
Argument from Danger Appeal
Argument from Need for Help
Argument from Distress
Argument from Commitment
Ethotic Argument
Generic Ad Hominem
Pragmatic Inconsistency
Argument from Inconsistent Commitment
Circumstantial Ad Hominem
Argument from Bias
Bias Ad Hominem
Argument from Gradualism
Slippery Slope Argument
Precedent Slippery Slope Argument
Sorites Slippery Slope Argument
Verbal Slippery Slope Argument
Full Slippery Slope Argument
Argument for Constitutive-Rule Claims
Argument from Rules
Argument for an Exceptional Case
Argument from Precedent
Argument from Plea for Excuse
Argument from Perception
Argument from Memory
Refining the Classification of Schemes
A Proposed General System for Classification of Schemes
Classification of Ad Hominem Schemes
Classifying the Subtypes of Ad Hominem Arguments
Formalizing Schemes
The Defeasible Modus Ponens Form of Schemes
Schemes in AML
Elements of a Formalization of Schemes
Formalization of Schemes in the Carneades System
Formally Modeling the Critical Questions
The Argument Interchange Format
The Research Project for Developing a Formal System
Schemes in Dialogue
Summary of the Dialectical System ASD
A Worked Example of a Dialogue in ASD
Schemes in Computer Systems
Schemes in Araucaria
Schemes in ArguMed
Schemes in Compendium
Schemes in Rationale
Schemes in Natural Language Argumentation
Schemes in Interagent Communication
Schemes in Automated Reasoning
Schemes in Computational Applications