Quantitative Paleozoology

ISBN-10: 0521715369

ISBN-13: 9780521715362

Edition: 2008

Authors: R. Lee Lyman

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Description:

Quantitative Paleozoology describes and illustrates how the remains of long-dead animals recovered from archaeological and paleontological excavations can be studied and analyzed. The methods range from determining how many animals of each species are represented to determining whether one collection consists of more broken and more burned bones than another. All methods are described and illustrated with data from real collections, while numerous graphs illustrate various quantitative properties.
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Book details

List price: $30.99
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 12/31/2008
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 348
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.430
Language: English

R Lee Lyman is professor of anthropology at University of Missouri, formerly at Oregon State University. He is co-author or co-editor of Adding Prehistory to Conservation Biology: Zooarchaeological Studies from North America, Cladistics and Archaeology, Style, Function, Transmission: Evolutionary Archaeological Perspectives, and many articles.

List of figures
List of tables
Preface
Tallying and Counting: Fundamentals
Paleozoological Concepts
Mathematical and Statistical Concepts
Scales of Measurement
Measured and Target Variables: Reliability and Validity
Absolute and Relative Frequencies and Closed Arrays
Discussion
Background of Some Faunal Samples
Estimating Taxonomic Abundances: NISP and MNI
The Number of Identified Specimens (NISP)
Advantages of NISP
Problems with NISP
Problems, Schmoblems
A Problem We Should Worry About
The Minimum Number of Individuals (MNI)
Strengths(?) of MNI
Problems with MNI
Aggregation
Defining Aggregates
Discussion
Which Scale of Measurement?
Resolution
Conclusion
Estimating Taxonomic Abundances: Other Methods
Biomass and Meat Weight
Measuring Biomass
Problems with Measuring Biomass (based on MNI)
Solving Some Problems in Biomass Measurement
Measuring Meat Weight
The Weight Method (Skeletal Mass Allometry)
Bone Weight
Bone Size and Animal Size Allometry
Ubiquity
Matching and Pairing
More Pairs Means Fewer Individuals
The Lincoln-Petersen Index
Identifying Bilateral Pairs
Correcting for Various Things
Size
Discussion
Sampling, Recovery, and Sample Size
Sampling to Redundancy
Excavation Amount
NISP as a Measure of Sample Redundancy
Volume Excavated or NISP
The Influences of Recovery Techniques
Hand Picking Specimens by Eye
Screen Mesh Size
To Correct or Not to Correct for Differential Loss
Summary
The Species-Area Relationship
Species-Area Curves Are Not All the Same
Nestedness
Conclusion
Measuring the Taxonomic Structure and Composition ("Diversity") of Faunas
Basic Variables of Structure and Composition
Indices of Structure and Similarity
Taxonomic Richness
Taxonomic Composition
Taxonomic Heterogeneity
Taxonomic Evenness
Discussion
Trends in Taxonomic Abundances
Conclusion
Skeletal Completeness, Frequencies of Skeletal Parts, and Fragmentation
History of the MNE Quantitative Unit
Determination of MNE Values
MNE Is Ordinal Scale at Best
A Digression on Frequencies of Left and Right Elements
Using MNE Values to Measure Skeletal-Part Frequencies
Modeling and Adjusting Skeletal-Part Frequencies
Measuring Skeletal Completeness
A Suggestion
Measuring Fragmentation
Fragmentation Intensity and Extent
The NISP:MNE Ratio
Discussion
Conclusion
Tallying for Taphonomy: Weathering, Burning, Corrosion, and Butchering
Yet Another Quantitative Unit
Weathering
Chemical Corrosion and Mechanical Abrasion
Burning and Charring
A Digression
Gnawing Damage
Butchering Marks
Types of Butchering Damage
Tallying Butchering Evidence: General Comments
Tallying Percussion Damage
Tallying Cut Marks and Cut Marked Specimens
The Surface Area Solution
Discussion
Conclusion
Final Thoughts
Counting as Exploration
Glossary
References
Index
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