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Preface | |

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Acknowledgments | |

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Introduction | |

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Brief history of meteorological sciences | |

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Brief history of air-pollution science | |

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The merging of air-pollution and meterorological sciences | |

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Weather, climate, and air pollution | |

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Scales of motion | |

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Atmospheric processes | |

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Atmospheric structure, composition, and thermodynamics | |

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Pressure, density, and composition | |

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Temperature structure | |

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Equation of state | |

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Changes of pressure with altitude | |

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Water in the atmosphere | |

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First law of thermodynamics | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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The continuity and thermodynamic energy equations | |

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Definitions | |

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Continuity equations | |

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Expanded continuity equations | |

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Thermodynamic energy equation | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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The momentum equation in Cartesian and spherical coordinates | |

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Horizontal coordinate systems | |

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Newton's second law of motion | |

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Applications of the momentum equation | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Vertical-coordinate conversions | |

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Hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic models | |

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Altitude coordinate | |

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Pressure coordinate | |

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Sigma-pressure coordinate | |

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Sigma-altitude coordinate | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Numerical solutions to partial differential equations | |

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Ordinary and partial differential equations | |

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Operator splitting | |

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Advection-diffusion equations | |

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Finite-difference approximations | |

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Series expansion methods | |

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Finite-volume methods | |

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Advection schemes used in air-quality models | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Finite-differencing the equations of atmospheric dynamics | |

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Vertical model grid | |

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The continuity equation for air | |

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The species continuity equation | |

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The thermodynamic energy equation | |

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The horizontal momentum equations | |

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The hydrostatic equation | |

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Order of calculations | |

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Time-stepping schemes | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Modeling project | |

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Boundary-layer and surface processes | |

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Turbulent fluxes of momentum, energy, and moisture | |

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Friction wind speed | |

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Surface roughness lengths | |

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Parameterizations of kinematic turbulent fluxes | |

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Eddy diffusion above the surface layer | |

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Ground surface temperature and soil moisture | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Radiative energy transfer | |

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Energy transfer processes | |

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Electromagnetic spectrum | |

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Light processes | |

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Absorption and scattering by gases and particles | |

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Visibility | |

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Optical depth | |

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Solar zenith angle | |

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The radiative transfer equation | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Gas-phase species, chemical reactions, and reaction rates | |

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Atmospheric gases and their molecular structures | |

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Chemical reactions and photoprocesses | |

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Reaction rates | |

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Reaction rate coefficients | |

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Sets of reactions | |

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Stiff systems | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Urban, free-tropospheric, and stratospheric chemistry | |

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Free-tropospheric photochemistry | |

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Urban photochemistry | |

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Stratospheric photochemistry | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Methods of solving chemical ordinary differential equations | |

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Characteristics of chemical ODEs | |

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Analytical solutions to ODEs | |

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Taylor series solution to ODEs | |

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Forward Euler solution to ODEs | |

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Backward Euler solution to ODEs | |

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Simple exponential and quasi-steady-state solutions to ODEs | |

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Multistep implicit-explicit (MIE) solution to ODEs | |

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Gear's solution to ODEs | |

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Family solution to ODEs | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Modeling project | |

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Particle components, size distributions, and size structures | |

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Introduction to particles | |

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Aerosol, fog, and cloud composition | |

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Discrete size distributions | |

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Continuous size distributions | |

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Evolution of size distributions over time | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Aerosol emission and nucleation | |

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Aerosol emission | |

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Nucleation | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Coagulation | |

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Implicit coagulation | |

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Semiimplicit Coagulation | |

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Comparison with analytical solutions | |

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Coagulation among multiple particle distributions | |

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Particle flow regimes | |

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Coagulation kernel | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Condensation, evaporation, deposition, and sublimation | |

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Fluxes to and from a single drop | |

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Corrections to growth parameters | |

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Fluxes to a particle with multiple components | |

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Fluxes to a population of particles | |

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Solutions to growth equations | |

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Solving homogeneous nucleation with condensation | |

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Effects of condensation on coagulation | |

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Ice crystal growth | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Chemical equilibrium and dissolution processes | |

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Definitions | |

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Equilibrium reactions | |

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Equilibrium relation and coefficients | |

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Forms of equilibrium-coefficient equations | |

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Mean binary solute activity coefficients | |

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Temperature dependence of binary solute activity coefficients | |

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Mean mixed solute activity coefficients | |

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The water equation | |

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Solid formation and deliquescence relative humidity | |

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Example equilibrium problem | |

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Mass-flux iteration method | |

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Analytical equilibrium iteration method | |

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Equilibrium solver results | |

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Nonequilibrium between gases and particles | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Cloud thermodynamics and dynamics | |

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Fog and cloud types and formation mechanisms | |

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Moist adiabatic and pseudoadiabatic processes | |

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Cloud development by free convection | |

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Entrainment | |

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Vertical momentum equation in a cloud | |

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Convective available potential energy | |

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Cumulus parameterizations | |

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Cloud microphysics | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Irreversible aqueous chemistry | |

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Significance of aqueous chemical reactions | |

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Mechanisms of converting S(IV) to S(VI) | |

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Diffusion within a drop | |

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Solving growth and aqueous chemical ODEs | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Sedimentation, dry deposition, and air-sea exchange | |

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Sedimentation | |

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Dry deposition | |

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Dry deposition and sedimentation calculations | |

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Air-sea flux of carbon dioxide and other gases | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Model design, application, and testing | |

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Steps in model formulation | |

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Example model simulations | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Computer programming practice | |

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Conversions and constants | |

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Distance conversions | |

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Volume conversions | |

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Mass conversions | |

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Temperature conversions | |

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Force conversions | |

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Pressure conversions | |

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Energy conversions | |

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Power conversions | |

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Speed conversions | |

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Constants | |

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Tables | |

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Standard atmospheric variables versus altitude | |

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Solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere | |

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Chemical symbols and structures of gases | |

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Gas-phase reactions | |

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Chemicals involved in equilibrium and aqueous reactions | |

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Thermodynamic data | |

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Equilibrium reactions and rate coefficients | |

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Irreversible aqueous reactions | |

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Solute activity coefficient data | |

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Water activity data | |

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Surface resistance data | |