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Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling

ISBN-10: 0521548659

ISBN-13: 9780521548656

Edition: 2nd 2005 (Revised)

Authors: Mark Z. Jacobson

List price: $111.00
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Description:

This is a new edition of the successful and comprehensive textbook on the atmospheric processes, numerical methods, and computational techniques required for advanced students and scientists to successfully study air pollution and meteorology.
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Book details

List price: $111.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 5/5/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 828
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 3.630
Language: English

Mark Z. Jacobson is Director of the Atmosphere/Energy Program and Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Stanford University. He is also a Senior Fellow of the Woods Institute for the Environment and of the Precourt Institute for Energy. He has been on the faculty at Stanford since 1994. His research involves the development and application of numerical models to understand the effects of energy systems, vehicles and other emission sources on climate and air pollution and the analysis of renewable energy resources. He received the 2005 American Meteorological Society Henry G. Houghton Award, based in part on his discovery that black carbon may be the second-leading cause of global warming after carbon dioxide. He co-authored a 2009 cover article in Scientific American (with Dr Mark DeLucchi) on how to power the world with renewable energy. In 2010 he was appointed to the Energy Efficiency and Renewables Advisory Committee by the US Secretary of Energy. He has taught courses on Atmospheric Pollution and Climate; Weather and Storms; Air Pollution Modeling; and Numerical Weather Prediction. He has published over 110 peer-reviewed journal articles and another textbook: Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling (Second Edition, 2005; Cambridge University Press).

Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction
Brief history of meteorological sciences
Brief history of air-pollution science
The merging of air-pollution and meterorological sciences
Weather, climate, and air pollution
Scales of motion
Atmospheric processes
Atmospheric structure, composition, and thermodynamics
Pressure, density, and composition
Temperature structure
Equation of state
Changes of pressure with altitude
Water in the atmosphere
First law of thermodynamics
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
The continuity and thermodynamic energy equations
Definitions
Continuity equations
Expanded continuity equations
Thermodynamic energy equation
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
The momentum equation in Cartesian and spherical coordinates
Horizontal coordinate systems
Newton's second law of motion
Applications of the momentum equation
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Vertical-coordinate conversions
Hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic models
Altitude coordinate
Pressure coordinate
Sigma-pressure coordinate
Sigma-altitude coordinate
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Numerical solutions to partial differential equations
Ordinary and partial differential equations
Operator splitting
Advection-diffusion equations
Finite-difference approximations
Series expansion methods
Finite-volume methods
Advection schemes used in air-quality models
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Finite-differencing the equations of atmospheric dynamics
Vertical model grid
The continuity equation for air
The species continuity equation
The thermodynamic energy equation
The horizontal momentum equations
The hydrostatic equation
Order of calculations
Time-stepping schemes
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Modeling project
Boundary-layer and surface processes
Turbulent fluxes of momentum, energy, and moisture
Friction wind speed
Surface roughness lengths
Parameterizations of kinematic turbulent fluxes
Eddy diffusion above the surface layer
Ground surface temperature and soil moisture
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Radiative energy transfer
Energy transfer processes
Electromagnetic spectrum
Light processes
Absorption and scattering by gases and particles
Visibility
Optical depth
Solar zenith angle
The radiative transfer equation
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Gas-phase species, chemical reactions, and reaction rates
Atmospheric gases and their molecular structures
Chemical reactions and photoprocesses
Reaction rates
Reaction rate coefficients
Sets of reactions
Stiff systems
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Urban, free-tropospheric, and stratospheric chemistry
Free-tropospheric photochemistry
Urban photochemistry
Stratospheric photochemistry
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Methods of solving chemical ordinary differential equations
Characteristics of chemical ODEs
Analytical solutions to ODEs
Taylor series solution to ODEs
Forward Euler solution to ODEs
Backward Euler solution to ODEs
Simple exponential and quasi-steady-state solutions to ODEs
Multistep implicit-explicit (MIE) solution to ODEs
Gear's solution to ODEs
Family solution to ODEs
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Modeling project
Particle components, size distributions, and size structures
Introduction to particles
Aerosol, fog, and cloud composition
Discrete size distributions
Continuous size distributions
Evolution of size distributions over time
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Aerosol emission and nucleation
Aerosol emission
Nucleation
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Coagulation
Implicit coagulation
Semiimplicit Coagulation
Comparison with analytical solutions
Coagulation among multiple particle distributions
Particle flow regimes
Coagulation kernel
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Condensation, evaporation, deposition, and sublimation
Fluxes to and from a single drop
Corrections to growth parameters
Fluxes to a particle with multiple components
Fluxes to a population of particles
Solutions to growth equations
Solving homogeneous nucleation with condensation
Effects of condensation on coagulation
Ice crystal growth
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Chemical equilibrium and dissolution processes
Definitions
Equilibrium reactions
Equilibrium relation and coefficients
Forms of equilibrium-coefficient equations
Mean binary solute activity coefficients
Temperature dependence of binary solute activity coefficients
Mean mixed solute activity coefficients
The water equation
Solid formation and deliquescence relative humidity
Example equilibrium problem
Mass-flux iteration method
Analytical equilibrium iteration method
Equilibrium solver results
Nonequilibrium between gases and particles
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Cloud thermodynamics and dynamics
Fog and cloud types and formation mechanisms
Moist adiabatic and pseudoadiabatic processes
Cloud development by free convection
Entrainment
Vertical momentum equation in a cloud
Convective available potential energy
Cumulus parameterizations
Cloud microphysics
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Irreversible aqueous chemistry
Significance of aqueous chemical reactions
Mechanisms of converting S(IV) to S(VI)
Diffusion within a drop
Solving growth and aqueous chemical ODEs
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Sedimentation, dry deposition, and air-sea exchange
Sedimentation
Dry deposition
Dry deposition and sedimentation calculations
Air-sea flux of carbon dioxide and other gases
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Model design, application, and testing
Steps in model formulation
Example model simulations
Summary
Problems
Computer programming practice
Conversions and constants
Distance conversions
Volume conversions
Mass conversions
Temperature conversions
Force conversions
Pressure conversions
Energy conversions
Power conversions
Speed conversions
Constants
Tables
Standard atmospheric variables versus altitude
Solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere
Chemical symbols and structures of gases
Gas-phase reactions
Chemicals involved in equilibrium and aqueous reactions
Thermodynamic data
Equilibrium reactions and rate coefficients
Irreversible aqueous reactions
Solute activity coefficient data
Water activity data
Surface resistance data