Dr Geoffrey P. Alpert received his Ph.D. from Washington State University. For more than twenty years he has specialized in research on high-risk police activities. His work includes police use of force, deadly force, emergency and pursuit driving, racial profiling, police decision-making, early warning systems and the impact of performance measures. Dr Alpert has been awarded numerous research grants from the United States Department of Justice and other governmental funding agencies. He has also worked directly with police departments by assisting with policy development and officer training and he has worked with agencies in Canada, England, France and the United States. Dr Alpert has written more than fifteen books and one hundred research articles. He has been interviewed on the leading television news broadcasts in England and the United States.
Dr Roger G. Dunham is Professor and Associate Chair of Sociology at the University of Miami, Florida. His research focuses on the social control of deviance and crime, including police decision-making with respect to use of force, pursuits, and racial profiling. He has co-authored four books on policing with Geoffrey Alpert and has published over fifty professional papers and chapters. Recent co-authored books include, Critical Issues in Policing, 4th edition (2001); Policing Urban America, 3rd edition (1997), and Crime and Justice in America, 2nd Edition (2002). In addition, he has co-authored several research monographs with the Police Executive Research Forum, including Police Pursuits: What We Know (2000) and The Force Factor: Measuring Police Use of Force Relative to Suspect Resistance (1997).