Cultural Models in Language and Thought
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Description: The papers in this volume, a multidisciplinary collaboration of anthropologists, linguists, and psychologists, explore the ways in which cultural knowledge is organized and used in everyday language and understanding. Employing a variety of methods, which rely heavily on linguistic data, the authors offer analyses of domains of knowledge ranging across the physical, social, and psychological worlds, and reveal the importance of tacit, presupposed knowledge in the conduct of everyday life. The authors argue that cultural knowledge is organized in 'cultural models' - storylike chains of prototypical events that unfold in simplified worlds - and explore the nature and role of these models. They demonstrate that cultural knowledge may take either proposition-schematic or image-schematic form, each enabling the performance of different kinds of cognitive tasks. Metaphor and metonymy are shown to have special roles in the construction of cultural models. The authors also demonstrates that some widely applicable cultural models recur nested within other, more special-purpose models. Finally, it is shown that shared models play a critical role in thinking, allowing humans to master, remember, and use the vast amount of knowledge required in everyday life. This innovative collection will appeal to anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, philosophers, students of artificial intelligence, and other readers interested in the processes of everyday human understanding.
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All the information you need in one place! Each Study Brief is a summary of one specific subject; facts, figures, and explanations to help you learn faster.
List price: $85.00
Copyright year: 1987
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 1/30/1987
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Dorothy Holland is Cary C. Boshamer Distinguished Professor of Anthropology at University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. Donald M. Nonini is Professor of Anthropology at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
|List of Contributors|
|Culture and cognition|
|Presupposed worlds, language, and discourse|
|The definition of lie: an examination of the folk models underlying a semantic prototype|
|Linguistic competence and folk theories of language: two English hedges|
|Prestige and intimacy: the cultural models behind Americans' talk about gender types|
|A folk model of the mind|
|Reasoning and problem solving from presupposed worlds|
|Proverbs and cultural models: an American psychology of problem solving|
|Convergent evidence for a cultural model of American marriage|
|The role of metaphor and analogy in representing knowledge of presupposed worlds|
|The cognitive model of anger inherent in American English|
|Two theories of home heat control|
|How people construct mental models|
|Negotiating social and psychological realities|
|Myth and experience in the Trobriand Islands|
|Goals, events, and understanding in Ifaluk emotion theory|
|Ecuadorian illness stories: cultural knowledge in natural discourse|
|Explanatory systems in oral life stories|
|Models, "folk" and "cultural": paradigms regained?|