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Buoyancy Effects in Fluids

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ISBN-10: 0521297265

ISBN-13: 9780521297264

Edition: 2001

Authors: J. S. Turner, G. K. Batchelor, S. H. Davis, L. B. Freud, S. Leibovich

List price: $98.00
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Description:

The phenomena treated in this book all depend on the action of gravity on small density differences in a non-rotating fluid. The author gives a connected account of the various motions which can be driven or influenced by buoyancy forces in a stratified fluid, including internal waves, turbulent shear flows and buoyant convection. This excellent introduction to a rapidly developing field, first published in 1973, can be used as the basis of graduate courses in university departments of meteorology, oceanography and various branches of engineering. This edition is reprinted with corrections, and extra references have been added to allow readers to bring themselves up to date on specific…    
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Book details

List price: $98.00
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 12/20/1979
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 412
Size: 5.50" wide x 8.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.298
Language: English

Preface
Introduction and Preliminaries
The topics to be discussed
Equilibrium and departures from it
The equations of motion and various approximations
Basic parameters of heterogeneous flows
Linear Internal Waves
Waves at a boundary between homogeneous layers
Progressive waves in deep water
Waves between layers of finite thickness
Standing waves
Waves in a continuously stratified fluid
Description in terms of modes
Description in terms of rays
Laboratory experiments on waves in bounded regions
Waves in a moving stratified fluid
Velocity constant with height
Lee waves with varying properties in the vertical
Reversals of velocity and critical layers
Weak non-linearities: interactions between waves
The mechanism of resonant interaction
Interactions of interfacial waves
Interactions with continuous stratification
Finite Amplitude Motions in Stably Stratified Fluids
Internal waves of finite amplitude
Interfacial waves
Cnoidal and solitary waves
Waves and flows in a density gradient
Finite amplitude lee waves
Internal hydraulics and related problems
Steady frictionless flow of a thin layer
Internal hydraulic jumps
Flow down a slope
The 'lock exchange' problem
Gravity currents and noses
Slow motions in a stratified fluid
The problem of selective withdrawal
Blocking ahead of an obstacle
Upstream wakes and boundary layers
Viscous diffusive flows
Instability and the Production of Turbulence
The stability of a free shear layer
The various types of instability
The Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism
Interfaces of finite thickness
Observations of the breakdown of parallel stratified flows
The combined effects of viscosity and stratification
Viscous effects at an interface
Thermally stratified plane Poiseuille flow
Flows along a sloping boundary
Transition to turbulence
Mechanisms for the generation of turbulence
Classification of the various mechanisms
Flows near boundaries
Shear instabilities produced by interfacial waves
The interaction between wave modes
Internal instabilities with continuous stratification
Turbulent Shear Flows in a Stratified Fluid
Velocity and density profiles near a horizontal boundary
The logarithmic boundary layer
The effect of a buoyancy flux
Forced and free convection
Constant-flux layers in stable stratification
Theories of turbulence in a stratified shear flow
Similarity theories of turbulence and diffusion
The spectrum of nearly inertial turbulence
Arguments based on the governing equations
Observations and experiments on stratified shear flows
The generation and collapse of turbulent wakes
The suppression of turbulence at an interior shear layer
Stratified flows in pipes, channels and estuaries
Longitudinal mixing and advection
Buoyant Convection from Isolated Sources
Plumes in a uniform environment
Axisymmetric turbulent plumes
The entrainment assumption
Forced plumes
Vertical two-dimensional plumes
Inclined plumes and turbulent gravity currents
A modified entrainment assumption
Slowly varying flows
Laboratory experiments and their applications
Detailed profile measurements
Thermals in a uniform environment
Dimensional arguments and laboratory experiments
Buoyant vortex rings
'Starting plumes'
Line thermals and bent-over plumes
The non-uniform environment
Motions in an unstable environment
Plumes in a stable environment
Forced plumes and vortex rings in a stable environment
Environmental turbulence
Convection from Heated Surfaces
The theory of convection between horizontal plates
The governing parameters
Linear stability theory
Finite amplitude convection
Laboratory and numerical experiments on parallel plate convection
Observations of laminar convection
Measurements at larger Rayleigh numbers
Numerical experiments
The interaction between convective elements and their environment
The formation of plumes or thermals near a horizontal boundary
The environment as an ensemble of convection elements
Convection from small sources in a confined region
Penetrative convection
Convection with other shapes of boundary
A heated vertical wall
Buoyancy layers at vertical and sloping boundaries
Convection in a slot
Double-Diffusive Convection
The stability problem
The mechanism of instability
Linear stability analysis
The form of the convection cells
Finite amplitude calculations
The formation of layers: experiments and observations
The 'diffusive' regime
The 'finger' regime
Side boundaries and horizontal gradients
Related observations in the ocean
The fluxes across an interface
Measurements in the 'diffusive' regime
The time-history of several convecting layers
Fluxes and structure at a 'finger' interface
The thickness of a 'finger' interface
Convection in a region of variable depth
Mixing Across Density Interfaces
Laboratory experiments
Stirring with oscillating grids
Mixing driven by a surface stress
The influence of molecular processes
Comparison of various methods of stirring
Geophysical applications
The wind-mixed surface layer
Seasonal changes of a thermocline
Mixing at an atmospheric inversion
Other factors limiting the depth of a mixed layer
Internal mixing Processes
The observational data
Critical Richardson number criteria
Examples of equilibrium conditions
Non-equilibrium conditions: step formation
Energetics of a layered system
Wave-induced mixing
Mixing at existing interfaces
Formation of layers from a smooth gradient
Statistical aspects of wave generation and breaking
Waves and turbulence in large scale flows
Bibliography and Author Index
Recent Publications
Subject Index