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Phonology An Introduction to Basic Concepts

ISBN-10: 0521281830

ISBN-13: 9780521281836

Edition: N/A

Authors: Roger Lass, S. R. Anderson, J. Bresnan, B. Comrie, W. Dressler

List price: $94.99
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What is the phonological organisation of natural languages like? What theoretical and analytical approaches are most fruitful? Is there any phonological theory that is 'the best' in all ways? The student of phonology is currently faced with a number of major and apparently competing theories, and the textbook writer who genuinely wishes to confront these questions is faced with the task of assessing the contribution each theory can make, while avoiding the merely fashionable or ephemeral in this contentious and evolving discipline. Roger Lass sees phonology as essentially a problem-centred discipline. Since in his view none of the supposedly comprehensive answers proposed to the questions raised above is really comprehensive or acceptable in all its detail, he concentrates rather on introducing the student to the perennial concerns in the study of sound structure. Hence his book adopts a broad and eclectic framework, unbiased toward any one model or theory. Instead, important aspects of the phenomenology of sound structure are discussed in relation to the particular phonological theory - be it Prague phonology, American structuralism, prosodic phonology, generative phonology - for which they are most salient. The book surveys a wide range of competing theories, analytical strategies, and notational systems, and attempts to provide a coherent intellectual and historical perspective on a discipline which has too often been viewed recently as developing via a series of 'revolutions'. Although this textbook assumes some command of phonetics, little other linguistic background is presupposed, and the author carefully provides the groundwork for each new development before it is introduced. In addition, the book deals in detail with two areas not customarily treated extensively in introductory texts; the phonology of casual speech, and phonological change. This spirited and original synthesis will enable its readers to acquire a real understanding of the fundamentals of phonology.
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Book details

List price: $94.99
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 7/26/1984
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 384
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 0.990
Language: English

To the student
Preliminaries: what is phonology? and some related matters
The domain
Areas of agreement
On facts, theories, and 'truth'
Notes and references
Foundations: the phoneme concept
Segmentation and classification
Units, realizations, distributions
'Excess' of data: the phoneme as a solution
Criteria for phonemic status
Phonemic analysis and restricting conditions
Simplicity, symmetry, pattern: the 'as-if' argument
Problems, I: biuniqueness and overlapping
Problems, II: linearity violations
Problems, III: separation of levels
Problems, IV: 'failure' of allophonic rules
A salvage operation for separation of levels: 'juncture' phonemes
Notes and references
Opposition, neutralization, features
Neutralization and the archiphoneme
The structure of phonological oppositions
Multiple neutralization
Neutralization types and archiphoneme 'representatives'
Neutralization vs. defective distribution: reprise
Notes and references
Interfaces: morphophonemic alternations and sandhi
Morphophonemic alternations
Morphophonemics as an 'interlevel'
Process morphophonemics: Bloomfield
The Unique Underlier Condition
The UUC and the Latin consonant-stems
Summary: implications of underlying forms and processes
Notes and references
'Ultimate constituents', 1: binary features
Feature theory
Jakobsonian distinctive features
Distinctiveness and redundancy
Features and 'natural classes'
A tentative set of segmental phonological features
Major class features
Cavity features
Primary strictures
Tongue-body features
Some problems in vowel specification
Multiple articulations
Lip attitude
Length of stricture
Secondary apertures
Manner features
Source features
Long vowels, diphthongs, and long consonants
Features in phonological description: first steps
Segment inventories
Phonological rules
Capturing natural classes: the role of acoustic features
Notes and references
'Ultimate constituents', 2: non-binary features and internal segment structure
The homogeneity assumption
Dissolving binarity: arguments from vowel height
Non-binary consonantal features
Internal segment structure, 1: sequential values
Internal segment structure, 2: the concept of 'gesture'
A problem: auditory/articulatory asymmetry in vowels
Notes and references
Phonological systems
The status of systems
The English Vowel Shift: the argument from non-participation
The argument from cyclical shifts
Phonological universals and markedness
System typology, I: vowel systems
Introduction: what phonemes does a language 'have'?
Long vowels and diphthongs
Basic vowel system types
System typology, II: consonant systems
Obstruents, 1: stops
Obstruents, 2: fricatives
Some generalizations about obstruents
Sonorants, 1: nasals
Sonorants, 2: 'liquids'
Sonorants, 3: 'semivowels' ('glides', vocoid approximants)
What phonemes does a language 'have'? revisited
Polysystematicity and neutralization
Notes and references
Phonological processes
The concept of process: terminology, theory, problems
Assimilation and dissimilation
Direction and contiguity
Basic assimilation and dissimilation types
Acoustic assimilation
Phonological strength
Lenition and fortition
Preferential environments and 'protection'
More on strength hierarchies
Whole segment processes: insertion, deletion, reordering
Complex processes and abbreviatory notations
Natural processes, evaluation measures, and explanation
Notes and references
The limits of abstraction: generative phonology
The conceptual core: 'relation by mediation'
Abstract analysis: the German velar nasal
'Abstract segments' and absolute neutralization: Hungarian vowel harmony
Some arguments against abstract solutions
Testing abstract analyses: the role of external evidence
Constraining the theory
Abstractness: some conclusions
Notes and references
Beyond the segment: prosodies, syllables, and quantity
'Reduction': how primitive are primitives?
Prosodic phonology
A first approach to prosodies
Types of prosodies
The prosodic treatment of vowel harmony
The reality of the syllable: quantity
Canonical quantity and 'compensation'
More arguments for the syllable
Delimiting syllables
Notes and references
Dependency relations
The concept of dependency
Intrasegmental dependencies: the structure of vowels
Vocalic processes in a dependency framework
The structure of consonants: the categorial gesture
The articulatory gesture
The initiatory gesture
Lenition revisited
Notes and references
Non-static phonology: connected speech and variation
Connected and casual speech
Systemic effects, tempo hierarchies, and rule interactions
Variation and variables: the social dimension
Individual variation: the lexical dimension
Notes and references
Phonological change
What changes? Phonetic change and phonologization
Split and merger
Morphophonemic rules, morphologization, and analogy
The mechanism of sound change
'Regularity' and reconstructability
Lexical diffusion and the origin of regularity
Phonetic gradulness: variation and change
Phonetic gradualness and 'missing links'
Notes and references
Phonetic and other symbols
General index
Index of names