Critique of Judgment

ISBN-10: 0486445437

ISBN-13: 9780486445434

Edition: 2005

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This 1790 polemic by one of philosophy's most important and influential figures attempts to establish the principles that support the faculty of judgment. Kant's third critique--after "Critique of Practical Reason and "Critique of Pure Reason--remains one of the most important works on human reason. Its first part addresses aesthetic sensibility, and its second half focuses on the apparent teleology in nature's design of organisms. The "Critique of Judgment forms the very basis of modern aesthetics by establishing the almost universally accepted framework for debate of aesthetic issues.
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Book details

List price: $9.95
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: Dover Publications, Incorporated
Publication date: 9/21/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 288
Size: 5.50" wide x 8.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.594

The greatest of all modern philosophers was born in the Baltic seaport of Konigsberg, East Prussia, the son of a saddler and never left the vicinity of his remote birthplace. Through his family pastor, Immanuel Kant received the opportunity to study at the newly founded Collegium Fredericianum, proceeding to the University of Konigsberg, where he was introduced to Wolffian philosophy and modern natural science by the philosopher Martin Knutzen. From 1746 to 1755, he served as tutor in various households near Konigsberg. Between 1755 and 1770, Kant published treatises on a number of scientific and philosophical subjects, including one in which he originated the nebular hypothesis of the origin of the solar system. Some of Kant's writings in the early 1760s attracted the favorable notice of respected philosophers such as J. H. Lambert and Moses Mendelssohn, but a professorship eluded Kant until he was over 45. In 1781 Kant finally published his great work, the Critique of Pure Reason. The early reviews were hostile and uncomprehending, and Kant's attempt to make his theories more accessible in his Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783) was largely unsuccessful. Then, partly through the influence of former student J. G. Herder, whose writings on anthropology and history challenged his Enlightenment convictions, Kant turned his attention to issues in the philosophy of morality and history, writing several short essays on the philosophy of history and sketching his ethical theory in the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785). Kant's new philosophical approach began to receive attention in 1786 through a series of articles in a widely circulated Gottingen journal by the Jena philosopher K. L. Reinhold. The following year Kant published a new, extensively revised edition of the Critique, following it up with the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), treating the foundations of moral philosophy, and the Critique of Judgment (1790), an examination of aesthetics rounding out his system through a strikingly original treatment of two topics that were widely perceived as high on the philosophical agenda at the time - the philosophical meaning of the taste for beauty and the use of teleology in natural science. From the early 1790s onward, Kant was regarded by the coming generation of philosophers as having overthrown all previous systems and as having opened up a whole new philosophical vista. During the last decade of his philosophical activity, Kant devoted most of his attention to applications of moral philosophy. His two chief works in the 1790s were Religion Within the Bounds of Plain Reason (1793--94) and Metaphysics of Morals (1798), the first part of which contained Kant's theory of right, law, and the political state. At the age of 74, most philosophers who are still active are engaged in consolidating and defending views they have already worked out. Kant, however, had perceived an important gap in his system and had begun rethinking its foundations. These attempts went on for four more years until the ravages of old age finally destroyed Kant's capacity for further intellectual work. The result was a lengthy but disorganized manuscript that was first published in 1920 under the title Opus Postumum. It displays the impact of some of the more radical young thinkers Kant's philosophy itself had inspired. Kant's philosophy focuses attention on the active role of human reason in the process of knowing the world and on its autonomy in giving moral law. Kant saw the development of reason as a collective possession of the human species, a product of nature working through human history. For him the process of free communication between independent minds is the very life of reason, the vocation of which is to remake politics, religion, science, art, and morality as the completion of a destiny whose shape it is our collective task to frame for ourselves.

Editor's Introduction
Of the division of Philosophy
Of the realm of Philosophy in general
Of the Critique of Judgment as a means of combining the two parts of Philosophy into a whole
Of Judgment as a faculty legislating a priori
The principle of the formal purposiveness of nature is a transcendental principle of Judgment
Of the combination of the feeling of pleasure with the concept of the purposiveness of nature
Of the aesthetical representation of the purposiveness of nature
Of the logical representation of the purposiveness of nature
Of the connexion of the legislation of Understanding with that of Reason by means of the Judgment
Critique of the Aesthetical Judgment
Analytic of the Aesthetical Judgment
Analytic of the Beautiful
First Moment of the judgment of taste, according to quality
The judgment of taste is aesthetical
The satisfaction which determines the judgment of taste is disinterested
The satisfaction in the pleasant is bound up with interest
The satisfaction in the good is bound up with interest
Comparison of the three specifically different kinds of satisfaction
Second Moment of the judgment of taste, viz. according to quantity
The Beautiful is that which apart from concepts is represented as the object of a universal satisfaction
Comparison of the Beautiful with the Pleasant and the Good by means of the above characteristic
The universality of the satisfaction is represented in a judgment of Taste only as subjective
Investigation of the question whether in the judgment of taste the feeling of pleasure precedes or follows the judging of the object
Third Moment of judgments of taste, according to the relation of the purposes which are brought into consideration therein
Of purposiveness in general
The judgment of taste has nothing at its basis but the form of the purposiveness of an object (or of its mode of representation)
The judgment of taste rests on a priori grounds
The pure judgment of taste is independent of charm and emotion
Elucidation by means of examples
The judgment of taste is quite independent of the concept of perfection
The judgment of taste, by which an object is declared to be beautiful under the condition of a definite concept, is not pure
Of the Ideal of Beauty
Fourth Moment of the judgment of taste, according to the modality of the satisfaction in the object
What the modality in a judgment of taste is
The subjective necessity, which we ascribe to the judgment of taste, is conditioned
The condition of necessity which a judgment of taste asserts is the Idea of a common sense
Have we ground for presupposing a common sense?
The necessity of the universal agreement that is thought in a judgment of taste is a subjective necessity, which is represented as objective under the presupposition of a common sense
General remark on the first section of the Analytic
Analytic of the Sublime
Transition from the faculty which judges of the Beautiful to that which judges of the Sublime
Of the divisions of an investigation into the feeling of the sublime
Of the Mathematically Sublime
Explanation of the term "sublime"
Of that estimation of the magnitude of natural things which is requisite for the Idea of the Sublime
Of the quality of the satisfaction in our judgments upon the Sublime
Of the Dynamically Sublime in Nature
Of Nature regarded as Might
Of the modality of the judgment upon the sublime in nature
General remark upon the exposition of the aesthetical reflective Judgment
Deduction of [pure] aesthetical judgments
The Deduction of aesthetical judgments on the objects of nature must not be directed to what we call Sublime in nature, but only to the Beautiful
Of the method of deduction of judgments of Taste
First peculiarity of the judgment of Taste
Second peculiarity of the judgment of Taste
There is no objective principle of Taste possible
The principle of Taste is the subjective principle of Judgment in general
Of the problem of a Deduction of judgments of Taste
What is properly asserted a priori of an object in a judgment of Taste
Deduction of judgments of Taste
Of the communicability of a sensation
Of Taste as a kind of sensus communis
Of the empirical interest in the Beautiful
Of the intellectual interest in the Beautiful
Of Art in general
Of beautiful Art
Beautiful Art is an art, in so far as it seems like nature
Beautiful Art is the art of genius
Elucidation and confirmation of the above explanation of Genius
Of the relation of Genius to Taste
Of the faculties of the mind that constitute Genius
Of the combination of Taste with Genius in the products of beautiful Art
Of the division of the beautiful arts
Of the combination of beautiful arts in one and the same product
Comparison of the respective aesthetical worth of the beautiful arts
Dialectic of the Aesthetical Judgment
Representation of the antinomy of Taste
Solution of the antinomy of Taste
Of the Idealism of the purposiveness of both Nature and Art as the unique principle of the aesthetical Judgment
Of Beauty as the symbol of Morality
Appendix: Of the method of Taste
Critique of the Teleological Judgment
Of the objective purposiveness of Nature
Analytic of the Teleological Judgment
Of the objective purposiveness which is merely formal as distinguished from that which is material
Of the relative, as distinguished from the inner, purposiveness of nature
Of the peculiar character of things as natural purposes
Things regarded as natural purposes are organised beings
Of the principle of judging of internal purposiveness in organised beings
Of the principle of the teleological judging of nature in general as a system of purposes
Of the principle of Teleology as internal principle of natural science
Dialectic of the Teleological Judgment
What is an antinomy of the Judgment?
Representation of this antinomy
Preliminary to the solution of the above antinomy
Of the different systems which deal with the purposiveness of nature
None of the above systems give what they pretend
The reason that we cannot treat the concept of a Technic of nature dogmatically is the fact that a natural purpose is inexplicable
The concept of an objective purposiveness of nature is a critical principle of Reason for the reflective Judgment
Of the peculiarity of the human Understanding, by means of which the concept of a natural purpose is possible
Of the union of the principle of the universal mechanism of matter with the teleological principle in the Technic of nature
Methodology of the Teleological Judgment
Whether teleology must be treated as if it belonged to the doctrine of nature
Of the necessary subordination of the mechanical to the teleological principle in the explanation of a thing as a natural purpose
Of the association of mechanism with the teleological principle in the explanation of a natural purpose as a natural product
Of the teleological system in the external relations of organised beings
Of the ultimate purpose of nature as a teleological system
Of the final purpose of the existence of a world, i.e. of creation itself
Of Physico-theology
Of Ethico-theology
Of the moral proof of the Being of God
Limitation of the validity of the moral proof
Of the use of the moral argument
Of the kind of belief in a teleological proof of the Being of God
Of the kind of belief produced by a practical faith
General remarks on Teleology
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