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Digital Diffractive Optics An Introduction to Planar Diffractive Optics and Related Technology

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ISBN-10: 0471984477

ISBN-13: 9780471984474

Edition: 2000

Authors: Patrick Meyrueis, Bernard C. Kress

List price: $441.00
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Description:

This volume sets out the state-of-the-art in the design and fabrication of diffractive optical elements, including CAD techniques. Applications of DOEs are discussed, as is the basic theory needed to design and use such elements efficiently.
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Book details

List price: $441.00
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 11/2/2000
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 396
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.496

Preface
Acknowledgments
Acronyms
Industrial Property
Introduction: From Diffraction to Diffractive Optics
Introduction
Huygens-Fresnel Diffraction
Fraunhofer and Fresnel Diffraction
Examples of Far-Field Diffraction Patterns
Long, Narrow Slit Example
Double Slit Example
Diffraction Grating
Fraunhofer Diffraction for a Rectangular Aperture
Fraunhofer Diffraction for a Circular Aperture
Conclusion
Design and Simulation of Diffractive Optical Elements
Introduction
Diffraction Modelling of DOEs: Theoretical Background
Diffraction of Monochromatic Waves
Review of Scalar Diffraction Theory for DOE Modelling
Limitations of the Kirchhoff Model
Review of Rigorous Diffraction Models
Grating Description
Lord Rayleigh's Early Propositions
Integral Method
Differential Method
Modal Approach
Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis Approach
Two-Wave Theory
Raman-Nath's Method
Kogelnik's Method
Analytical Methods
Rytov's Method
Effective Medium Theory (EMT)
Farn's Method
Review of Intermediate Diffraction Models
Optimum Etch Depth
Geometrical Shadow Duty Cycle
Theoretical Aspects of DOE Performance in the Paraxial Domain
Energetic Considerations of Scalar Diffraction
Diffraction Efficiency for Amplitude DOEs
Diffraction Efficiency for Multilevel Surface Relief DOEs
Diffraction Efficiency for Analog Surface Relief DOEs
Geometric Considerations of Scalar Diffraction
Physical DOE Layout Considerations for Diffraction Efficiency
Numerical Implementation Techniques
Numerical Implementation of Scalar Theory
Object Sampling Considerations
Finite Pixel Size Considerations
From the DFT to the FFT Algorithm
CPU Time Considerations
Numerical Implementation of Rigorous Diffraction Theories
Numerical RCWA Resolution Method
Modelling of a Periodic Profile of Infinite Extent
Global Wavefront Coupling
Field Description Outside the Diffractive Structure Region
Resolution of the Wave Equation
Matrix Representation of the Wave Equation
Approximations of the RCWA Method
Discussion on the Coupled Wave Approximations
CPU Time Considerations
DOE Design and Optimization Techniques
Analytical-Type Diffractive Elements
Straightforward Design
Use of Classical Optical Design (COD) Tools
Radially Symmetrical Phase Profiles for Aspherical Phase Profile Description (the Well-Known Sag Equation)
General Non-symmetrical Aspherical Phase Profile Described as a Polynomial Expansion (i.e. CodeV Output Format)
Interferogram-Type DOEs
Harmonic or Multiorder DOEs
Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs)
Numerical-Type Diffractive Elements
Characteristics of Numerical-Type DOEs
Degrees of Freedom of Design Process
DOE-Related Degrees of Freedom
Reconstruction Plane-Related Degrees of Freedom
Quality Criteria of Reconstruction
Diffraction Efficiency [eta subscript d]
Root Mean Square Error (RMS-E)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
Strehl Ratio [gamma]
Cost Function Considerations
Space-Bandwidth Product (SBWP)
Implicit Design Constraint Considerations
Direct Design Techniques
Talbot Array Illuminators
Iterative Optimization Algorithms
Input-Output Optimization Algorithms
Direct Binary Search Algorithm
Simulated Annealing (SA) Algorithms
Iterative Discrete On-Axis (IDO) Algorithm
IFTA Optimization Algorithms
Gerchberg-Saxton Algorithm
Ping-Pong Algorithm
Yang-Gu Algorithm
Algorithms Based on Evolutionary Programming
Genetic Algorithms
Global Optimization Algorithms
Multifunctional DOEs: Description and Classification
Non-Linear Quantization
Encoding Techniques
DOE Data Quantization Process
Fringe-Oriented Encoding
Cell-Oriented Encoding
Pixel-Oriented Encoding
Complex Kinoform Encoding Method
Real Error Diffusion Encoding Method
Complex Error Diffusion Encoding Method
Lohman Encoding Method
Lee Encoding Method
Burch Encoding Method
Spatial Carrier Encoding
High Spatial Frequency Carrier
Grating Dislocation Encoding
Encoding Advantages and Limitations
DOE Modelling and Simulation Techniques
Analytical-Type DOE Modelling and Simulation Techniques
Local Grating Approximation
Equivalent Lens Model
Sweatt Model
User-Defined Surfaces (UDS)
HOE Simulation Method
Numerical-Type DOE Modelling and Simulation Techniques
BPM Modelling Techniques
TE Polarization Mode
TM Polarization Mode
References
DOE Fabrication and Replication Techniques
Introduction
Desktop DOE Production Techniques
Photoreduction Technique
Direct High-Resolution Printing
Diamond Machine Tools
Dynamical Devices
Reconfigurable DOEs
Acousto-Optical Modulators
Electro-Optical Modulators
Photorefractive Materials
Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulators
MEMs-Based Reconfigurable DOEs
Switchable DOEs
Microlithographic Fabrication Technology
Mask Pattern Generators
Laser-Beam Writing Machines
Electron-Beam Pattern Generators
Photolithographic Transfer
Mask Aligners
Phase Shift Masks
Step and Scan: Steppers
Pattern Etching
Deep Exposure Lithography
Deep X-Ray Exposure and Patterning
Deep Proton Irradiation
Direct Material Ablation Tools
FIB Technology
Direct Laser Ablation
Fast Atom-Beam Masking
Microlithographic Fabrication Techniques
Optical Interference
Fiber Bragg Grating Fabrication
Conventional Mask Alignments
Grey-Tone Masking
Direct Write Methods
Direct Binary Write
Direct Analog Write
Ion Exchange Techniques
Ion Exchange Fabrication Methods
LIGA Process
Replication Techniques
Use of Step and Repeat (Stepper)
Plastic Embossing Process
Moulding Processes
Injection Moulding DOE Replication Techniques
Sol - Gel Process
Holographic Recording Process
Summary of DOE Design and Fabrication
References
CAD/CAM Tools for DOEs
Introduction
CAD Design Techniques
General Design Algorithm for CGHS
Choice of the Core Propagator
Improvements to the Core Algorithm
Improvements of the Quantization Process
Improvements in Uniformity
Optimum Encoding Methods
CAD Simulation Techniques
Numerical Propagator Constraints
Far-Field Reconstructions
Near-Field Reconstructions
Straightforward Fresnel Transform (SFFT) Propagator
Convolution-Based Fresnel Transform (CBFT) Propagator
The Kirchhoff-Based 3D Propagators
3DK-Based DOE Design and Optimization
Increasing the Dynamic Range of the FFT-Based Reconstructions
Imbedding Process
Oversampling Process
Effects of Combined Processes
Example of Numerical Reconstruction Improvements
Spatial Multiplexing Process
High-Level DOE Operations in CAD/CAM Tools
Spatial Multiplexing
DOE Data Modulation
Complex DOE Data Multiplexing
Iterative DOE Data Multiplexing
Solutions to Scaling Problem
Adapted Constraint Sets for Convergence of Algorithm
Associated Tolerancing: Design Rule Checks
References
DOE Fabrication Tolerancing Analysis
Introduction
Optimum Microlithographic Fabrication Techniques
Basic Requirements
Experimental Investigations
Direct Binary Electron-Beam Write
Experimental Validations
Fabrication Error Analysis
Direct Analog Electron-Beam Write
Experimental Validations
Fabrication Error Analysis
Fabrication Constraint Analysis and Modelling
Electron-Beam Proximity Effects
2D-EPE Effects
3D EPE Effects
Optical Proximity Effects
Quantification of the Effects of 2D OPEs on DOE Performance
Anisotropic Etching
Quantification of the Effects of Anisotropic Ribe Etching on the DOE Performances
Additional Ribe Etching Constraints and Errors
Other Systematic Fabrication Errors
Fabrication Tolerancing Methods
Systematic Fabrication Error Compensation Methods
Systematic Fabrication Error Compensation Techniques
Electron-Beam Proximity Compensation Algorithms
Analytical-Type DOE EPE Compensation
Numerical-Type DOE EPE Compensation
Application to 2D EPE Effects
Analytical-Type DOE Compensation
Numerical-Type DOE Compensation
Application to 3D EPE Effects
Analytical-Type DOE Compensation
Numerical-Type DOE Compensation
Optical Proximity Compensation Algorithms
Compensation of Other Fabrication Errors
Direct Linear Compensation Methods
Electron-Beam Dosage
Anisotropic Ion Milling Errors
Decreasing DOE Sensitivity to Fabrication Errors
Numerical Propagator Core Alteration
Multiple IFTA-Based Iterative Compensation
Multiple PI Quantization Techniques
References
DOE Mask Layout Generation
Introduction
Standard Fabrication File Formats
High Level Formats
Intermediate-Level Formats
Source Languages
Low-Level Formats
DOE Data Fracture Techniques
Analytical-Type DOE Fracture
Core Algorithm of the General-Purpose Fracture Process
Fracture Error Quantification
Fringe Search Algorithm
Polygonization of Skeletonized Fringes
Numerical-Type DOE Fracture
Finding the Optimum Kinoform Cell Shape
Data Compression Applied to the Final Fabrication File
Data Compression Method No. 1
Data Compression Method No. 2
Simulation of Effects of DOE Data Fracture
Final Formatting of the Fractured Patterns
Reticule Layout Placement and Wafer Stepping
System-Oriented DOE Designs: Examples
Introduction
Hybrid Optical Systems
Diffractive/Refractive Partitioning Issues
Simulation Techniques for Hybrid Systems
DOE Phase Unwrapping Process
Hybrid Ray Tracing/Fresnel Propagation Method
Example
Additional Properties of Hybrid Lenses
Shallow Blazed Diffractive Grooves
Deep Blazed Diffractive Grooves
Binary Diffractive Grooves
Multiplexed Diffractive Grooves
Optoelectronic Systems
OE Partitioning Issues
Example 1: Optical Clock Distribution for MCM
Physical Parameter Optimization
Related Constraints
OE System Architecture Optimization Procedure
Multifunctional DOE Optimization Procedure
Example 2: Free-Space Optical Interconnections
Computer Interconnection Architecture
Physical Detector Placements
DOE Array Design Considerations
Example 3: OE Packaging Issues--Design Compensations
OE Packaging Tolerancing
DOE Compensation Techniques
Core Propagator Alteration
Use of the MP-GPA Algorithm
Optomechanical Systems
Optomechanical Partitioning Issues
Example 1: Diffractive Synthetic Aperture Zoom
Example 2: Microfluidic System
Example 3: High-Resolution Lidar Signal Analysis Microsystem
Summary
References
Conclusion
Index