| |

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Preface | |

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Acknowledgments | |

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Acronyms | |

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Industrial Property | |

| |

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Introduction: From Diffraction to Diffractive Optics | |

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| |

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Introduction | |

| |

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| |

Huygens-Fresnel Diffraction | |

| |

| |

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Fraunhofer and Fresnel Diffraction | |

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Examples of Far-Field Diffraction Patterns | |

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Long, Narrow Slit Example | |

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Double Slit Example | |

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Diffraction Grating | |

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Fraunhofer Diffraction for a Rectangular Aperture | |

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Fraunhofer Diffraction for a Circular Aperture | |

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Conclusion | |

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Design and Simulation of Diffractive Optical Elements | |

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| |

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Introduction | |

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Diffraction Modelling of DOEs: Theoretical Background | |

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Diffraction of Monochromatic Waves | |

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Review of Scalar Diffraction Theory for DOE Modelling | |

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Limitations of the Kirchhoff Model | |

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Review of Rigorous Diffraction Models | |

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Grating Description | |

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Lord Rayleigh's Early Propositions | |

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Integral Method | |

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Differential Method | |

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Modal Approach | |

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Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis Approach | |

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Two-Wave Theory | |

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Raman-Nath's Method | |

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Kogelnik's Method | |

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Analytical Methods | |

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Rytov's Method | |

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Effective Medium Theory (EMT) | |

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Farn's Method | |

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Review of Intermediate Diffraction Models | |

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Optimum Etch Depth | |

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Geometrical Shadow Duty Cycle | |

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| |

| |

Theoretical Aspects of DOE Performance in the Paraxial Domain | |

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| |

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Energetic Considerations of Scalar Diffraction | |

| |

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Diffraction Efficiency for Amplitude DOEs | |

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Diffraction Efficiency for Multilevel Surface Relief DOEs | |

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Diffraction Efficiency for Analog Surface Relief DOEs | |

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| |

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Geometric Considerations of Scalar Diffraction | |

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Physical DOE Layout Considerations for Diffraction Efficiency | |

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| |

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Numerical Implementation Techniques | |

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Numerical Implementation of Scalar Theory | |

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Object Sampling Considerations | |

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Finite Pixel Size Considerations | |

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From the DFT to the FFT Algorithm | |

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CPU Time Considerations | |

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Numerical Implementation of Rigorous Diffraction Theories | |

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Numerical RCWA Resolution Method | |

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| |

Modelling of a Periodic Profile of Infinite Extent | |

| |

| |

Global Wavefront Coupling | |

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Field Description Outside the Diffractive Structure Region | |

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| |

Resolution of the Wave Equation | |

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Matrix Representation of the Wave Equation | |

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| |

Approximations of the RCWA Method | |

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| |

Discussion on the Coupled Wave Approximations | |

| |

| |

| |

CPU Time Considerations | |

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| |

| |

DOE Design and Optimization Techniques | |

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| |

| |

Analytical-Type Diffractive Elements | |

| |

| |

| |

Straightforward Design | |

| |

| |

| |

Use of Classical Optical Design (COD) Tools | |

| |

| |

Radially Symmetrical Phase Profiles for Aspherical Phase Profile Description (the Well-Known Sag Equation) | |

| |

| |

General Non-symmetrical Aspherical Phase Profile Described as a Polynomial Expansion (i.e. CodeV Output Format) | |

| |

| |

| |

Interferogram-Type DOEs | |

| |

| |

| |

Harmonic or Multiorder DOEs | |

| |

| |

| |

Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) | |

| |

| |

| |

Numerical-Type Diffractive Elements | |

| |

| |

| |

Characteristics of Numerical-Type DOEs | |

| |

| |

Degrees of Freedom of Design Process | |

| |

| |

DOE-Related Degrees of Freedom | |

| |

| |

Reconstruction Plane-Related Degrees of Freedom | |

| |

| |

| |

Quality Criteria of Reconstruction | |

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| |

Diffraction Efficiency [eta subscript d] | |

| |

| |

Root Mean Square Error (RMS-E) | |

| |

| |

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) | |

| |

| |

Strehl Ratio [gamma] | |

| |

| |

Cost Function Considerations | |

| |

| |

Space-Bandwidth Product (SBWP) | |

| |

| |

Implicit Design Constraint Considerations | |

| |

| |

| |

Direct Design Techniques | |

| |

| |

Talbot Array Illuminators | |

| |

| |

| |

Iterative Optimization Algorithms | |

| |

| |

| |

Input-Output Optimization Algorithms | |

| |

| |

Direct Binary Search Algorithm | |

| |

| |

Simulated Annealing (SA) Algorithms | |

| |

| |

Iterative Discrete On-Axis (IDO) Algorithm | |

| |

| |

| |

IFTA Optimization Algorithms | |

| |

| |

Gerchberg-Saxton Algorithm | |

| |

| |

Ping-Pong Algorithm | |

| |

| |

Yang-Gu Algorithm | |

| |

| |

| |

Algorithms Based on Evolutionary Programming | |

| |

| |

Genetic Algorithms | |

| |

| |

| |

Global Optimization Algorithms | |

| |

| |

| |

Multifunctional DOEs: Description and Classification | |

| |

| |

| |

Non-Linear Quantization | |

| |

| |

| |

Encoding Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

DOE Data Quantization Process | |

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| |

| |

Fringe-Oriented Encoding | |

| |

| |

| |

Cell-Oriented Encoding | |

| |

| |

| |

Pixel-Oriented Encoding | |

| |

| |

Complex Kinoform Encoding Method | |

| |

| |

Real Error Diffusion Encoding Method | |

| |

| |

Complex Error Diffusion Encoding Method | |

| |

| |

Lohman Encoding Method | |

| |

| |

Lee Encoding Method | |

| |

| |

Burch Encoding Method | |

| |

| |

| |

Spatial Carrier Encoding | |

| |

| |

High Spatial Frequency Carrier | |

| |

| |

Grating Dislocation Encoding | |

| |

| |

| |

Encoding Advantages and Limitations | |

| |

| |

| |

DOE Modelling and Simulation Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

Analytical-Type DOE Modelling and Simulation Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

Local Grating Approximation | |

| |

| |

| |

Equivalent Lens Model | |

| |

| |

| |

Sweatt Model | |

| |

| |

| |

User-Defined Surfaces (UDS) | |

| |

| |

| |

HOE Simulation Method | |

| |

| |

| |

Numerical-Type DOE Modelling and Simulation Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

BPM Modelling Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

TE Polarization Mode | |

| |

| |

| |

TM Polarization Mode | |

| |

| |

| |

References | |

| |

| |

| |

DOE Fabrication and Replication Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Desktop DOE Production Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

Photoreduction Technique | |

| |

| |

| |

Direct High-Resolution Printing | |

| |

| |

| |

Diamond Machine Tools | |

| |

| |

| |

Dynamical Devices | |

| |

| |

| |

Reconfigurable DOEs | |

| |

| |

| |

Acousto-Optical Modulators | |

| |

| |

| |

Electro-Optical Modulators | |

| |

| |

| |

Photorefractive Materials | |

| |

| |

| |

Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulators | |

| |

| |

| |

MEMs-Based Reconfigurable DOEs | |

| |

| |

| |

Switchable DOEs | |

| |

| |

| |

Microlithographic Fabrication Technology | |

| |

| |

| |

Mask Pattern Generators | |

| |

| |

| |

Laser-Beam Writing Machines | |

| |

| |

| |

Electron-Beam Pattern Generators | |

| |

| |

| |

Photolithographic Transfer | |

| |

| |

| |

Mask Aligners | |

| |

| |

| |

Phase Shift Masks | |

| |

| |

| |

Step and Scan: Steppers | |

| |

| |

| |

Pattern Etching | |

| |

| |

| |

Deep Exposure Lithography | |

| |

| |

| |

Deep X-Ray Exposure and Patterning | |

| |

| |

| |

Deep Proton Irradiation | |

| |

| |

| |

Direct Material Ablation Tools | |

| |

| |

| |

FIB Technology | |

| |

| |

| |

Direct Laser Ablation | |

| |

| |

| |

Fast Atom-Beam Masking | |

| |

| |

| |

Microlithographic Fabrication Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

Optical Interference | |

| |

| |

| |

Fiber Bragg Grating Fabrication | |

| |

| |

| |

Conventional Mask Alignments | |

| |

| |

| |

Grey-Tone Masking | |

| |

| |

| |

Direct Write Methods | |

| |

| |

| |

Direct Binary Write | |

| |

| |

| |

Direct Analog Write | |

| |

| |

| |

Ion Exchange Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

Ion Exchange Fabrication Methods | |

| |

| |

| |

LIGA Process | |

| |

| |

| |

Replication Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

Use of Step and Repeat (Stepper) | |

| |

| |

| |

Plastic Embossing Process | |

| |

| |

| |

Moulding Processes | |

| |

| |

| |

Injection Moulding DOE Replication Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

Sol - Gel Process | |

| |

| |

| |

Holographic Recording Process | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary of DOE Design and Fabrication | |

| |

| |

| |

References | |

| |

| |

| |

CAD/CAM Tools for DOEs | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

CAD Design Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

General Design Algorithm for CGHS | |

| |

| |

| |

Choice of the Core Propagator | |

| |

| |

| |

Improvements to the Core Algorithm | |

| |

| |

Improvements of the Quantization Process | |

| |

| |

Improvements in Uniformity | |

| |

| |

| |

Optimum Encoding Methods | |

| |

| |

| |

CAD Simulation Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

Numerical Propagator Constraints | |

| |

| |

Far-Field Reconstructions | |

| |

| |

Near-Field Reconstructions | |

| |

| |

Straightforward Fresnel Transform (SFFT) Propagator | |

| |

| |

Convolution-Based Fresnel Transform (CBFT) Propagator | |

| |

| |

The Kirchhoff-Based 3D Propagators | |

| |

| |

3DK-Based DOE Design and Optimization | |

| |

| |

| |

Increasing the Dynamic Range of the FFT-Based Reconstructions | |

| |

| |

| |

Imbedding Process | |

| |

| |

| |

Oversampling Process | |

| |

| |

| |

Effects of Combined Processes | |

| |

| |

| |

Example of Numerical Reconstruction Improvements | |

| |

| |

| |

Spatial Multiplexing Process | |

| |

| |

| |

High-Level DOE Operations in CAD/CAM Tools | |

| |

| |

| |

Spatial Multiplexing | |

| |

| |

| |

DOE Data Modulation | |

| |

| |

| |

Complex DOE Data Multiplexing | |

| |

| |

| |

Iterative DOE Data Multiplexing | |

| |

| |

| |

Solutions to Scaling Problem | |

| |

| |

| |

Adapted Constraint Sets for Convergence of Algorithm | |

| |

| |

| |

Associated Tolerancing: Design Rule Checks | |

| |

| |

| |

References | |

| |

| |

| |

DOE Fabrication Tolerancing Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Optimum Microlithographic Fabrication Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

Basic Requirements | |

| |

| |

| |

Experimental Investigations | |

| |

| |

| |

Direct Binary Electron-Beam Write | |

| |

| |

Experimental Validations | |

| |

| |

Fabrication Error Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Direct Analog Electron-Beam Write | |

| |

| |

Experimental Validations | |

| |

| |

Fabrication Error Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Fabrication Constraint Analysis and Modelling | |

| |

| |

| |

Electron-Beam Proximity Effects | |

| |

| |

| |

2D-EPE Effects | |

| |

| |

| |

3D EPE Effects | |

| |

| |

| |

Optical Proximity Effects | |

| |

| |

| |

Quantification of the Effects of 2D OPEs on DOE Performance | |

| |

| |

| |

Anisotropic Etching | |

| |

| |

| |

Quantification of the Effects of Anisotropic Ribe Etching on the DOE Performances | |

| |

| |

| |

Additional Ribe Etching Constraints and Errors | |

| |

| |

| |

Other Systematic Fabrication Errors | |

| |

| |

| |

Fabrication Tolerancing Methods | |

| |

| |

| |

Systematic Fabrication Error Compensation Methods | |

| |

| |

| |

Systematic Fabrication Error Compensation Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

Electron-Beam Proximity Compensation Algorithms | |

| |

| |

Analytical-Type DOE EPE Compensation | |

| |

| |

Numerical-Type DOE EPE Compensation | |

| |

| |

Application to 2D EPE Effects | |

| |

| |

Analytical-Type DOE Compensation | |

| |

| |

Numerical-Type DOE Compensation | |

| |

| |

Application to 3D EPE Effects | |

| |

| |

Analytical-Type DOE Compensation | |

| |

| |

Numerical-Type DOE Compensation | |

| |

| |

| |

Optical Proximity Compensation Algorithms | |

| |

| |

| |

Compensation of Other Fabrication Errors | |

| |

| |

| |

Direct Linear Compensation Methods | |

| |

| |

Electron-Beam Dosage | |

| |

| |

Anisotropic Ion Milling Errors | |

| |

| |

| |

Decreasing DOE Sensitivity to Fabrication Errors | |

| |

| |

| |

Numerical Propagator Core Alteration | |

| |

| |

| |

Multiple IFTA-Based Iterative Compensation | |

| |

| |

| |

Multiple PI Quantization Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

References | |

| |

| |

| |

DOE Mask Layout Generation | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Standard Fabrication File Formats | |

| |

| |

| |

High Level Formats | |

| |

| |

| |

Intermediate-Level Formats | |

| |

| |

| |

Source Languages | |

| |

| |

| |

Low-Level Formats | |

| |

| |

| |

DOE Data Fracture Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

Analytical-Type DOE Fracture | |

| |

| |

| |

Core Algorithm of the General-Purpose Fracture Process | |

| |

| |

| |

Fracture Error Quantification | |

| |

| |

| |

Fringe Search Algorithm | |

| |

| |

| |

Polygonization of Skeletonized Fringes | |

| |

| |

| |

Numerical-Type DOE Fracture | |

| |

| |

| |

Finding the Optimum Kinoform Cell Shape | |

| |

| |

| |

Data Compression Applied to the Final Fabrication File | |

| |

| |

Data Compression Method No. 1 | |

| |

| |

Data Compression Method No. 2 | |

| |

| |

| |

Simulation of Effects of DOE Data Fracture | |

| |

| |

| |

Final Formatting of the Fractured Patterns | |

| |

| |

| |

Reticule Layout Placement and Wafer Stepping | |

| |

| |

| |

System-Oriented DOE Designs: Examples | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Hybrid Optical Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Diffractive/Refractive Partitioning Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Simulation Techniques for Hybrid Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

DOE Phase Unwrapping Process | |

| |

| |

| |

Hybrid Ray Tracing/Fresnel Propagation Method | |

| |

| |

Example | |

| |

| |

| |

Additional Properties of Hybrid Lenses | |

| |

| |

| |

Shallow Blazed Diffractive Grooves | |

| |

| |

| |

Deep Blazed Diffractive Grooves | |

| |

| |

| |

Binary Diffractive Grooves | |

| |

| |

| |

Multiplexed Diffractive Grooves | |

| |

| |

| |

Optoelectronic Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

OE Partitioning Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Example 1: Optical Clock Distribution for MCM | |

| |

| |

| |

Physical Parameter Optimization | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Constraints | |

| |

| |

| |

OE System Architecture Optimization Procedure | |

| |

| |

| |

Multifunctional DOE Optimization Procedure | |

| |

| |

| |

Example 2: Free-Space Optical Interconnections | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Interconnection Architecture | |

| |

| |

| |

Physical Detector Placements | |

| |

| |

| |

DOE Array Design Considerations | |

| |

| |

| |

Example 3: OE Packaging Issues--Design Compensations | |

| |

| |

| |

OE Packaging Tolerancing | |

| |

| |

| |

DOE Compensation Techniques | |

| |

| |

Core Propagator Alteration | |

| |

| |

Use of the MP-GPA Algorithm | |

| |

| |

| |

Optomechanical Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Optomechanical Partitioning Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Example 1: Diffractive Synthetic Aperture Zoom | |

| |

| |

| |

Example 2: Microfluidic System | |

| |

| |

| |

Example 3: High-Resolution Lidar Signal Analysis Microsystem | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

References | |

| |

| |

Conclusion | |

| |

| |

Index | |