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Elements of Molecular Neurobiology

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ISBN-10: 0471960799

ISBN-13: 9780471960799

Edition: 2nd 1996

Authors: C. U. M. Smith

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Book details

List price: $79.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 1996
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 5/27/1996
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 534
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.74" long x 1.17" tall
Weight: 2.486
Language: English

Chris Smith is Lecturer in Support for Learning and Inclusive Education at the University of Glasgow. She is a Project Leader with the Scottish Network for Able Pupils.

Preface
Preface to the First Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Introductory Orientation
Outline of Nervous Systems
Vertebrate Nervous Systems
Cells of the Nervous Systems
Neurons
Glia
Organisation of Synapses
Organisation of Neurons in the Brain
The Conformation of Informational Macromolecules
Proteins
Primary Structure
Secondary Structure
Tertiary Structure
Quaternary Structure
Molecular Chaperones
Nucleic Acids
DNA
RNA
Conclusion
Information Processing in Cells
The Genetic Code
Replication
'DNA Makes RNA and RNA Makes Protein'
Transcription
Post-transcriptional Processing
Translation
Antisense and triplex oligonucleotides
Control of the Expression of Genetic Information
Genomic Control
Transcriptional Control
Oncogenes, protooncogenes and IEGs
Post-transcriptional Control
Translational Control
Post-translational Control
Conclusion
Molecular Evolution
Mutation
Point Mutations
Proof-reading and Repair Mechanisms
Chromosomal Mutations
Protein Evolution
Evolutionary Development of Protein Molecules and Phylogenetic Relationships
Evolutionary Relationships of Different Proteins
Evolution by Differential Post-transcriptional and Post-translational Processing: the Opioids and Other Neuroactive Peptides
Conclusion
Manipulating Biomolecules
Restriction Endonucleases
Separation of Restriction Fragments
Restriction Maps
Recombination
Cloning
Plasmids
Phage
Cosmids
Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs)
Yeast Artifical Chromosomes (YACs)
Isolating Bacteria Containing Recombinant Plasmids or Phage
The 'Shotgun' Construction of 'Genomic' Gene Libraries
A Technique for Finding a Gene in the Library
Construction of a 'cDNA' Gene Library
Fishing for Genes in a cDNA Library
Positional Cloning
The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Sequence Analysis of DNA
Prokaryotic Expression Vectors for Eukaryotic DNA
Xenopus Oocyte as an Expression Vector for Membrane Proteins
Site-directed Mutagenesis
Gene Targeting and Knockout Genetics
Targeted Gene Expression
Hybridisation Histochemistry
DNA Chips
Conclusion
Genomics
Some History
Methodology
Salient Features of the Human Genome
The Genes of Neuropathology
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)
Other Genomes
Conclusion
Biomembranes
Lipids
Phospholipids
Glycolipids
Cholesterol
Membrane Order and Fluidity
Membrane Asymmetry
Proteins
Mobility of Membrane Proteins
Synthesis of Biomembranes
Myelin and Myelination
The Submembranous Cytoskeleton
Junctions Between Cells
Tight Junctions
Gap Junctions
Gap Junctions and Neuropathology
Deafness
Cataract
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (Type 2) Disease
Spreading Hyperexcitability (Epilepsy) and Hypoexcitability (Spreading Depression)
Conclusion and Forward Look
G-protein-coupled Receptors
Messengers and Receptors
The 7TM Serpentine Receptors
G-proteins
The GTPase superfamily
G-protein Collision-coupling Systems
Effectors and Second Messengers
Adenylyl Cyclases
PIP[subscript 2]-phospholipase (Phospholipase C-[beta])
Synaptic Significance of 'Collision-coupling' Systems
Networks of G-protein Signalling Systems
The Adrenergic Receptor (AR)
The Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor (mAChR)
Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors (mGluRs)
Neurokinin Receptors (NKRs)
Cannabinoid Receptors (CBRs)
Rhodopsin
Cone Opsins
Conclusion
Pumps
Energetics
The Na[superscript +] + K[superscript +] Pump
The Calcium Pump
Calmodulin
Other Pumps and Transport Mechanisms
Conclusion
Ligand-gated Ion Channels
The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor
Structure
Function
Development
Pathologies
CNS Acetylcholine Receptors
Evolution of the nAChRs
The GABA[subscript A] Receptor
Pathology
The Glycine Receptor
Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors (iGluRs)
AMPA Receptors
KA Receptors
NMDA Receptors
The inositol triphosphate (IP[subscript 3] or InsP[subscript 3]) receptor
Purinoceptors
Conclusion
Voltage-gated Channels
The KcsA Channel
Neuronal K[superscript +] Channels
2TM(1P) Channels; Kir Channels
4TM(2P) Channels; K[superscript +] Leak Channels
6TM(1P) Channels; K[subscript v] Channels
Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels
Ca[superscript 2+] Channels
Structure
Diversity
Biophysics
Na[superscript +] Channels
Structure
Diversity
Biophysics
Ion Selectivity and Voltage Sensitivity
Ion Selectivity
Voltage Sensitivity
Voltage-Sensitive Chloride Channels
ClC Channels
Cln Channels
Phospholemman
Channelopathies
Potassium Channels
Calcium Channels
Sodium Channels
Chloride Channels
Evolution of Ion Channels
Conclusion and Forward Look
Resting Potentials and Cable Conduction
Measurement of the Resting Potential
The Origin of the Resting Potential
Electrotonic Potentials and Cable Conduction
Length
Diameter
Conclusion
Sensory Transduction
Chemoreceptors
Chemosensitivity in Prokaryocytes
Chemosensitivity in Vertebrates
Photoreceptors
Retinitis pigmentosa
Mechanoreceptors
A Prokaryote Mechanoreceptor
Mechanosensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans
Mechanosensitivity in Vertebrates: Hair Cells
Conclusion
The Action Potential
Voltage-clamp Analyses
Patch-clamp Analyses
Propagation of the Action Potential
Early history of the impulse
Initiation of the Impulse
Switching off neurons by manipulating K[superscript +] channels
Rate of Propagation
Conclusion
The Neuron as a Secretory Cell
Neurons and Secretions
Synthesis in the Perikaryon
Co-translational Insertion
The Golgi Body and Post-translational Modification
Transport Along the Axon
Microfilaments
Intermediate Filaments (IFs)
Subcellular geography of protein biosynthesis in neurons
Microtubules (MTs)
The Axonal Cytoskeleton
Axoplasmic Transport Summarised
Exocytosis and Endocytosis at the Synaptic Terminal
Vesicle Mustering
The Ca[superscript 2+] Trigger
Vesicle Docking
Transmitter Release
Dissociation of Fusion Complex and Retrieval and Reconstitution of Vesicle Membrane
Refilling of Vesicle
Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters
Termination of Transmitter Release
Modulation of Release
Conclusion
Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators
Acetylcholine
Criteria for neurotransmitters
Amino Acids
Excitatory Amino Acids (EAAs): Glutamic Acid and Aspartic Acid
Inhibitory Amino Acids (IAAs): [gamma]-Aminobutyric Acid and Glycine
Otto Loewi and vagusstoff
Serotonin (=5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)
Catecholamines
Dopamine (DA)
Noradrenaline (=Norepinephrine, NE)
Purines
Cannabinoids
Reuptake neurotransmitter transporters
Peptides
Substance P
Enkephalins
Cohabitation of Peptides and Non-peptides
Nitric Oxide (NO)
Conclusion
The Postsynaptic Cell
Synaptosomes
The Postsynaptic Density
Electrophysiology of the Postsynaptic Membrane
The Excitatory Synapse
Cajal, Sherrington and the beginnings of synaptology
The Inhibitory Synapse
Interaction of EPSPs and IPSPs
Ion Channels in the Postsynaptic Membrane
Second Messenger Control of Ion Channels
Second Messenger Control of Gene Expression
The Pinealocyte
Conclusion and Forward Look
Developmental Genetics of the Brain
Introduction: 'Ontology Recapitulates Phylogeny'
Establishing an Anteroposterior (A-P) Axis in Drosophila
Initial Subdivision of the Drosophila Embryo
The A-P Axis in Vertebrate Central Nervous Systems
Segmentation Genes in Mus musculus
Homeosis and Homeotic Mutations
Homeobox Genes
Homeobox Genes and the Early Development of the Brain
POU Genes and Neuronal Differentiation
Sequential Expression Of Transcription Factors in Drosophila CNS
Pax-6: Developmental Genetics of Eyes and Olfactory Systems
Other Genes Involved in Neuronal Differentiation
Conclusion
Epigenetics of the Brain
The Origins of Neurons and Glia
Neural Stem Cells
Tracing Neuronal Lineages
Retrovirus Tagging
Enhancer Trapping
Morphogenesis of Neurons
Morphogenesis of the Drosophila Compound Eye
Growth Cones
Pathfinding
Eph receptors and ephrins
Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)
Growth Factors and Differential Survival
Neurotransmitters as growth factors
Morphopoietic Fields
Functional Sculpting
Conclusion
Memory
Some Definitions
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Short- and Long-term Memory
Relation Between STM and LTM
Where is the Memory Trace Located?
Invertebrate Systems
Thermal Conditioning in C. elegans
Drosophila
Aplysia and the Molecular Biology of Memory
The Memory Trace in Mammals
Post-tetanic Potentiation and Long-term Potentiation
Fibre Pathways in the Hippocampus
Perforant and Schaffer Collateral Fibres
The CRE Site Again
Mossy Fibre Pathway
Histology
Non-genomic Mechanisms
Dendritic spines
Conclusion
Some Pathologies
Neuroses, Psychoses and the Mind/Brain Dichotomy
Prions and Prion Diseases
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Fragile X Syndrome (FraX)
Neurofibromatoses
Motor Neuron Disease (MND)
Huntington's Disease (=Chorea) (HD)
Depression
Endogenous Depression
Exogenous Depression
Neurochemistry of Depression
Stress and Depression
Parkinson's Disease (PD)
[alpha]-Synuclein
Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
Diagnosis
Aetiology
Molecular Pathology
Environmental Influences: Aluminium
The BAPtist Proposal: an Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis
Therapy
Conclusion
Molecules and Consciousness
Units
Data
Genes
Physical Models of Ion Conduction and Gating
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Glossary
Bibliography
Index of Neurological Disease
Index