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Proteins Biochemistry and Biotechnology

ISBN-10: 0471899070

ISBN-13: 9780471899075

Edition: 2nd 2002

Authors: Gary Walsh

List price: $123.95
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Description:

This is a complete source of information for all those interested in the area of protein biotechnology and biochemistry, providing a broad overview of the various medical, diagnostic and industrial uses of proteins.
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Book details

List price: $123.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/5/2001
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 560
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.640

Preface
Protein structure
Introduction
Overview of protein structure
Primary structure
The peptide bond
Amino acid sequence determination
Polypeptide synthesis
Higher level structure
Secondary structure
Tertiary structure
Higher structure determination
Protein post-translational modification
Proteolytic processing
Glycosylation
Phosphorylation
Acetylation, acylation and amidation
Protein stability and folding
Folding pathways
Protein engineering
Further reading
Protein sources
Introduction
Recombinant versus non-recombinant proteins
Microorganisms as sources of proteins
Protein production in genetically engineered microorganisms
Heterologous protein production in E. coli
Heterologous protein production in yeast
Heterologous protein production in fungi
Proteins from plants
Production of heterologous proteins in plants
Animal tissue as a protein source
Heterologous protein production in transgenic animals
Heterologous protein production using animal cell culture
Insect cell culture systems
Direct chemical synthesis
Conclusion
Further reading
Protein purification and characterization
Introduction
Protein detection and quantification
Initial recovery of proteins
Cell disruption
Microbial cell disruption
Removal of whole cells and cell debris
Centrifugation
Filtration
Aqueous two-phase partitioning
Removal of nucleic acid and lipid
Concentration and primary purification
Concentration by precipitation
Concentration by ion-exchange
Concentration by ultrafiltration
Diafiltration
Column chromatography
Size exclusion chromatography (gel filtration)
Ion-exchange chromatography
Hydrophobic interaction chromatography
Affinity chromatography
Chromatography on hydroxyapatite
Chromatofocusing
Protein chromatography based on aqueous two-phase seperations
HPLC of proteins
Expanded bed chromatography
Membrane chromatography
Purification of recombinant proteins
Protein inactivation and stabilization
Chemical inactivation
Inactivation by biological or physical influences
Approaches to protein stabilization
Lyophilization
Micropurification of proteins
Protein characterization
Functional studies
Evidence of purity
Molecular mass determination: mass spectrometry
Further reading
Large-scale protein purification
Some general principles
Scale up of protein production
Scale up of purification systems
Bulk protein production
Purification of proteins used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes
Therapeutic protein production: some special issues
Clean areas
Cleaning, decontamination and sanitation
Range and medical significance of impurities potentially present in protein-based therapeutic products
Microbial contaminants
Viral contaminants
Pyrogenic contaminants
DNA contaminants
Protein contaminants
Chemical and miscellaneous contaminants
Labelling and packing of finished products
Further reading
Therapeutic proteins: blood products and vaccines
Introduction
Blood products
Whole blood and blood plasma
Blood derived proteins
Blood coagulation factors; biochemistry and function
Haemophilia A and B
Production of clotting factors for medical use
Recombinant blood factors
Non-hereditary coagulation disorders
Anticoagulants
Traditional anticoagulants
Hirudin
Ancrod
Thrombolytic agents
The fibrinolytic system
t-PA-based products
Additional thrombolytic agents
Additional blood-related products
Human serum albumin
[alpha subscript 1]-Antitrypsin
Blood substitutes
Vaccine technology
Traditional vaccines
Recombinant vaccines
Recombinant hepatitis B based vaccines
Additional approaches to vaccine design
Anti-idiotype antibodies as vaccines
Vaccines for AIDS
Cancer vaccines
Adjuvant technology
Further reading
Therapeutic antibodies and enzymes
Introduction
Antibodies for in vivo applications
Polyclonal antibody preparations
Monoclonal antibodies
Hybridoma technology
Antibodies approved for in vivo application
Antibody-based tumour detection and destruction
Therapeutic antibodies, an initial disappointment
Chimaeric and humanized antibodies
Tumour surface antigen specificity
Production of antibodies for clinical application
Therapeutic enzymes
Asparaginase
Debriding and anti-inflammatory agents
Enzymes as digestive aids
Superoxide dismutase
Nuclease treatment of cystic fibrosis
Glucocerebrosidase
Further reading
Hormones and growth factors used therapeutically
Introduction
Insulin
Diabetes mellitus
Insulin synthesis in vivo
Conventional insulin preparations
Chromatographically purified insulin
Human insulin preparations
Insulin formulations
Engineered insulins
Glucagon
Gonadotrophins
FSH, LH and hCG
Sources of FSH, LH and hCG
Pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin
Superovulation in animals
Inhibin
Growth hormone
Bovine growth hormone
Erythropoietin
Other growth factors
Platelet-derived growth factor
Insulin-like growth factors
Epidermal growth factor
Fibroblast growth factor
Transforming growth factors
Thyrotrophin
Corticotrophin
Prolactin
Peptide Regulatory factors
Oxytocin and vasopressin
Luteinzing hormone releasing hormone
Somatostatin
Further reading
Interferons, interleukins and additional regulatory factors
Regulatory factors; cytokines versus hormones
Interferons
Interferon-[alpha]
Interferon-[beta]
Interferon-[gamma]
Production and medical applications of IFN-[alpha]
Production and medical applications of IFN-[beta]
Production and medical applications of IFN-[gamma]
Interferon-[oegma]
Interferon-[tau]
Interleukins
Interleukin-2
IL-2; production and medical applications
Interleukin-11
Interleukin-1
Interleukins-4, 6 and 12
Tumour necrosis factors
TNF-[alpha]
Biological effects of TNF-[alpha]
Medical applications of TNF-[alpha]
TNF-[beta]
Colony-stimulating factors
Production and medical applications of CSFs
Cytokine toxicity
Further reading
Proteins used for analytical purposes
Introduction
Enzymes as diagnostic/analytical reagents
End point versus kinetic methods
Some common enzyme-based diagnostic tests
Assay of blood glucose
Assay of blood cholesterol and triglycerides
Assay of blood urea and uric acid
Immobilized enzymes as diagnostic reagents
Biosensors
Enzyme-based biosensors
Non-enzyme-based biosensors
Antibodies as analytical reagents
Radioimmunoassay
Enzyme immunoassay
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
Enzymes used in EIA
Trends in immunoassay development
Immunological assays for HIV
Additional immunoassay applications
Latex-based and other immunoassay systems
Membrane-bound diagnostic systems
Further reading
Industrial enzymes: an introduction
Industrial enzymes
Sales value of industrial enzymes
Traditional (non-recombinant) sources of industrial enzymes
The impact of genetic engineering on enzyme production
Engineered enzymes
Immobilized enzymes
Gel-fibre entrapment
Immobilization via adsorption
Enzyme safety
Industrial enzymes; the future
Extremophiles
Hyperthermophiles
Enzymes from hyperthermophiles
Enzymes from additional extremophiles
Enzymes in organic solvents
Further reading
Industrial enzymes: proteases and carbohydrases
Proteolytic enzymes
Classification of proteases
Detergent proteases
Proteases used in cheese manufacture
Proteases and meat tenderization
Proteases and leather production
Synthesis of aspartame
Protease enzymes used in the brewing and baking industries
Enzymatic conversion of protein waste
Proteases; additional applications
Carbohydrases
Amylases
The starch substrate
[alpha]-Amylase
Glucoamylase
[beta]-Amylase
[alpha]1--]6 Glucosidases
Glucose isomerase
Industrial importance of starch conversion
[alpha]-Amylase: detergent applications
[alpha]-Amylase: applications in textile desizing
Lactase and sucrase
Lignocellulose degrading enzymes
The substrate cellulose
Hemicellulose and lignin
Cellulases
Fungal cellulases
Bacterial cellulases
Cellulase structure
Industrial applications of cellulose hydrolysis
Detergent applications
Stonewashing and biopolishing
Enzymatic deinking
Pectin and pectic enzymes
The pectin substrate
Pectic enzymes
Industrial significance of pectin and pectin degrading enzymes
Further reading
Additional industrial enzymes
Lipases
Detergent applications
Additional applications
Penicillin acylase
Amino acylase and amino acid production
Cyclodextrins and cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase
Enzymes in animal nutrution
Removal of anti-nutritional factors
Phytase and phytic acid
Factors affecting feed enzyme efficacy and stability
Detection of enzymes after their addition to feed
Enzymes in animal nutrition; future trends
Oxidoreductases
Enzymes in molecular biology
Restriction endonucleases and DNA ligase
DNA polymerase
Further reading
Non-catalytic industrial proteins
Introduction
Functional properties of proteins
Viscosity and thickening
Gelation; cohesion and elasticity
Fat and flavour binding, emulsification and foaming
Milk and milk proteins
Caseins; biochemistry
Casein; industrial production and uses
Whey proteins; biochemistry
Whey proteins; industrial production and uses
Animal and microbial proteins
Gelatin
Egg proteins
Single-cell protein
Sweet and taste modifying proteins
Further reading
Index