Psychological Testing A Practical Introduction

ISBN-10: 0471738077

ISBN-13: 9780471738077

Edition: 2nd 2007 (Revised)

Authors: Thomas P. Hogan

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Following an active learning approach, this book provides readers with the foundation to perform testing in psychology and allied disciplines. It first explores the basics of psychological testing and then covers the latest and most popular tests available. Various chapters outline the major conceptual and procedural approaches for each category and give examples of the tests used.
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Book details

List price: $244.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 10/9/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 736
Size: 7.75" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.948
Language: English

The World of Psychological Testing
Major Categories of Tests (with Some Examples)
Some Additional Ways to Categorize Tests
Uses and Users of Tests
Major Issues: Assumptions and Questions
Basic Assumptions
Fundamental Questions
The Differential Perspective
The Historical Perspective
Remote Background: Up to 1840
Setting the Stage: 1840-1880
The Roots: 1880-1915
The Flowering: 1915-1940
Consolidation: 1940-1965
Just Yesterday: 1965-2000
And Now: 2000-Present
Major Forces
The Scientific Impulse
Concern for the Individual
Practical Applications
Statistical Methodology
The Rise of Clinical Psychology
By Way of Definition
Key Terms
Sources of Information about Tests
Two Common Problems Requiring Information about Tests
Comprehensive Lists of Tests
Systematic Reviews
Electronic Listings
ETS Test Collection on the Web
Buros Reviews Available Electronically
Health and Psychosocial Instruments (HaPI)
Special Purpose Collections
Books about Single Tests
Textbooks on Testing
Publishers' Catalogs and Personnel
Other Users
Strengths and Shortcomings of the Sources
Key Terms
Test Norms
Purpose of Norms
Review of Statistics: Part I
Types of Scales
Organization of Raw Data
Central Tendency
Shapes of Distributions
The Raw Score
The Special Case of Theta
Types of Norms
Percentile Ranks and Percentiles
Standard Scores
Developmental Norms
Examples of Norm Tables
Narrative Reports and Norms
Norm Groups
National Norms
International Norms
Convenience Norm Groups
User Norms
Subgroup Norms
Local Norms
Institutional Norms
Criterion-referenced Interpretation
The Standardization Group: Determining Its Usefulness
Key Terms
Four Important Distinctions
Review of Statistics: Part 2 - Correlation and Prediction
Bivariate Distribution and Correlation Coefficients
Regression Line
Factors Affecting Correlation Coefficients
Major Sources of Unreliability
Test Scoring
Test Content
Test Administration Conditions
Personal Conditions
Conceptual Framework: True Score Theory
Methods of Determining Reliability
Test-Retest Reliability
Inter-scorer Reliability
Alternate Form Reliability
Internal Consistency Reliability
Three Important Conclusions
The Standard Error of Measurement
Standard Errors: Three Types
Some Special Issues in Reliability
Reliability in Item Response Theory
Generalizability Theory
Factors Affecting Reliability Coefficients
How High Should Reliability Be?
Key Terms
Refining the Definition of Validity
Construct Underrepresentation and Construct Irrelevant Variance
The Basic Issue
The Traditional and Newer Classifications of Types of Validity Evidence
The Issue of Face Validity
Content Validity
Application to Achievement Tests
Instructional Validity
Application to Employment Tests
Content Validity in Other Areas
Problems with Content Validity
Criterion-related Validity
External, Realistic Criterion
Contrasted Groups
Correlations with Other Tests
Special Considerations for Interpreting Criterion-related Validity
Combining Information from Different Tests
Decision Theory: Basic Concepts and Terms
Hits, False Positives, and False Negatives
Base Rates
Selectivity and Specificity
Construct Validity
Internal Structure
Factor Analysis
Response Processes
Effect of Experimental Variables
Developmental Changes
Consequential Validity
Differential Validity in the Study of Test Bias
The Practical Concerns
Integrating the Evidence
In the Final Analysis: A Relative Standard
Key Terms
Test Development and Item Analysis
Defining the Test's Purpose
Preliminary Design Issues
Origin of New Tests
Item Preparation
Types of Test Items
Selected-response Items
Scoring Selected-response Items
Constructed-response Items
Scoring Constructed-response Items
The Pros and Cons of Selected-response versus Constructed-response Items
Suggestions for Writing Selected-response Items
Suggestions for Writing Constructed-response Items
Some Practical Considerations in Writing Items
Item Editing and Review
Item Analysis
Item Tryout
Item Statistics
Item Difficulty
Item Discrimination
Distractor Analysis
Examples of Item Statistics
Item Statistics in Item Response Theory
Factor Analysis as an Item Analysis Technique
Differential Item Functioning (DIF)
Item Analysis for Criterion-Referenced Tests
Cross-validation and Validity Shrinkage
Item Selection
Recycling to the Item Preparation Stage
Standardization and Ancillary Research Programs
Preparation of Final Materials and Publication
Key Terms
Intelligence: Theories and Issues
Intelligence: Areas of Study
The Meaning of Intelligence
The Real-world Correlates of Intelligence
What to Call Them?
Theories of Intelligence
Two Classical Theories
Hierarchical Models
Developmental Theories
Information Processing and Biological Theories of Intelligence
Current Status of Testing in Relation to the Theories
Group Differences in Intelligence
Differences by Sex
Differences by Age
Differences by Socioeconomic Level
Differences by Racial/Ethnic Group
Heredity and Environment
Common Misconceptions
Methodology and Terms
Major Results
Key Terms
Individual Tests of Intelligence
Some Cases
Uses and Characteristics of Individual Intelligence Tests
Typical Items in an Individual Intelligence Test
The Wechsler Scales: An Overview
Historical Introduction
Wechsler's Concept of Intelligence
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Third Edition
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition
Psychometric Characteristics of WISC - IV
The Stanford-Binet
Psychometric Characteristics of SB5
Brief Individually Administered Tests of Mental Ability
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test
Two Other Entries
A Test of a Specific Mental Ability: The Wechsler Memory Scale - III
Mental Retardation and the Concept of Adaptive Behavior
The Concept of Adaptive Behavior
Definition of MR
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales
Infant and Early Childhood Tests
Other Applications
Trends in Individual Intelligence Testing
Key Terms
Group Tests of Mental Ability
Some Cases
Uses of Group-administered Mental Ability Tests
Common Characteristics of Group Mental Ability Tests
Mental Ability Tests in School Testing Programs
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test
College Admissions Tests
Graduate and Professional School Selection
Graduate Record Examinations: General Test
Military and Business Selection Tests
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery
Culture-fair Tests of Mental Ability
Raven's Progressive Matrices
Other Culture-fair Tests and Some Conclusions
Intelligence Tests for Micro-cultures
Generalizations about Group Mental Ability Tests
Key Terms
Neuropsychological Assessment (Brooke Cannon)
Case Examples
Focus on the Brain: The Road to Clinical Neuropsychology
Two Main Approaches to Neuropsychological Assessment
Fixed Battery Approach
Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery
Flexible Battery Approach
Mental Status
Motor Functioning
Executive Functions
Personality/Psychological State
Supplementary Information
Medical History
Psychiatric History
Psychosocial History
School Records
Collateral Information
Behavioral Observations
Case Examples Revisited
Key Terms
Achievement Tests
The Ability-Achievement Continuum
The Psychologist's Interface with Achievement Tests
A Broad Classification of Achievement Tests
A Typical School Testing Program
The Accountability Movement and Standards-Based Education
Achievement Batteries
Stanford Achievement Test
Typical Uses and Special Features
Achievement Batteries at the College Level
Single Area Achievement Tests
Typical Uses and Special Features
Licensing and Certification Tests
Typical Uses and Special Features
A Primer on Establishing Cutoff Scores
State, National, and International Achievement Tests
State Testing Programs
A National Testing Program: NAEP
International Testing Programs: TIMSS and PISA
Special Features
Individually Administered Achievement Tests
Typical Uses and Special Features
Some Nagging Questions about Achievement Tests
Key Terms
Objective Personality Tests
Uses of Objective Personality Tests
A Functional Classification of Objective Personality Tests
Comprehensive Inventories: Common Characteristics
Specific Domain Tests: Common Characteristics
The Special Problems of Response Sets and Faking
Strategies for Dealing with Response Sets and Faking
Major Approaches to Personality Test Development
Content Method
Criterion-Keying Approach
Factor Analysis
Theory-Driven Approach
Combined Approaches
Examples of Comprehensive Inventories
The Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS): An Example of a Theory-Based Test
The NEO Personality Inventory-Revised: An Example of a Factor Analytic Test
Specific Domain Tests
Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale
Measures within Positive Psychology
An Example: Subjective Well-Being
Trends in the Development and Use of Objective Personality Tests
Key Terms
Clinical Instruments and Methods
The Clinical Interview as Assessment Technique
Unstructured, Semistructured, and Structured Interviews
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders
The Employment Interview: A Sidebar
Examples of Comprehensive Self-Report Inventories
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) and the Millon Family
Symptom Checklist-90-R
Examples of Specific Domain Tests
The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
The Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI)
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
Behavior Rating Scales
Multi-score Systems
Single-area Scales
Behavioral Assessment
Direct or Naturalistic Observation
Analogue Behavioral Observation
Behavioral Interviewing
Self-Monitoring and Self-Report
Cognitive-Behavioral Assessment
Physiological Measures
Concluding Comments on Behavioral Assessment Methods
Trends in the Development and Use of Clinical Instruments
Key Terms
Projective Techniques
General Characteristics of Projective Techniques and the Projective Hypothesis
Uses of Projective Techniques
Indicators for the Use of Projectives
Administration and Scoring of Projective Techniques: A Forewarning
The Rorschach Inkblot Test
The Materials
Administration and Scoring
The Coding System
Sequence of Scores and Structural Summary
Evaluation of the Rorschach
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank (RISB)
Human Figure Drawings
The Future of Projective Techniques
Training of Psychologists
Emergence of Managed Care
Objective Scoring, Norm-referenced Interpretation, and Psychometric Quality
Key Terms
Interests and Attitudes
Orientation to Career Interest Testing
Strong and Kuder
Traditional Approaches
Uses of Career Interest Tests
A Forewarning on Names
Holland Themes and the RIASEC Codes
Strong Interest Inventory
Kuder Career Search (KCS)
Self-Directed Search (SDS)
Some Generalizations about Career Interest Measures
Attitude Measures
Likert Scales
Thurstone Scales
Guttman Scales
Public Opinion Polls and Consumer Research
Key Terms
Ethical and Legal Issues
Ethics versus Law
Ethical Issues
Background on Professional Ethics
Sources of Ethical Principles for Testing
Generalizations about Ethical Use of Tests
Informed Consent
Knowledge of Results
Test Security
Test Construction and Publication
Automated Scoring/Interpretation Systems
Unqualified Persons
Test User Qualifications
Legal Issues
Areas of Application: An Overview
Definition of Laws
Laws Related to Testing
The Fourteenth Amendment
The Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1991
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
The Handicapped/Disabled in Education: P.L. 94-142 and IDEA
EEOC Guidelines
No Child Left Behind Act
Illustrative Court Cases
Griggs v. Duke Power
Debra P. v. Turlington and GI Forum v. TEA
Larry P. v. Riles, PASE v. Hannon, and Crawford v. Honig
Karraker v. Rent-A-Center
Forensic Application of Tests
Two Legal Terms
Three Areas of Special Concern
And Beyond
Some Generalizations about the Interface of Testing and the Law
Key Terms
Test Reviewing and Selection
How to Build a (Simple) Test
Contact Information for Major Test Publishers
Sample Data Sets
Answers to Selected Exercises
Text and Illustration Credits
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*A minimum purchase of $35 is required. Shipping is provided via FedEx SmartPost® and FedEx Express Saver®. Average delivery time is 1 – 5 business days, but is not guaranteed in that timeframe. Also allow 1 - 2 days for processing. Free shipping is eligible only in the continental United States and excludes Hawaii, Alaska and Puerto Rico. FedEx service marks used by permission."Marketplace" orders are not eligible for free or discounted shipping.

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