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Immunology A Short Course

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ISBN-10: 0471597910

ISBN-13: 9780471597919

Edition: 3rd 1996

Authors: Eli Benjamini, Geoffrey Sunshine, Sidney Leskowitz

List price: $48.50
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Description:

Providing the ideal introduction to immunology, this succinct & comprehensive text offers a progressive & coherent presentation of major topics. Important new terms & their definitions are highlighted.
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Book details

List price: $48.50
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 1996
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 4/26/1996
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 514
Size: 7.75" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.046
Language: English

Preface and Acknowledgments
Preface and Acknowledgments to the Third Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Acknowledgments to the First and Second Editions
Introduction and Overview
Innate and Acquired Immunity
Active, Passive, and Adoptive Immunization
Characteristics of the Immune Response
Cells Involved in the Acquired Immune Response
Clonal Selection Theory
Humoral and Cellular Immunity
Generation of Diversity in the Immune Response
Benefits of Immunology
Damaging Effects of the Immune Response
Regulation of the Immune Response
The Future of Immunology
Elements of Innate and Acquired Immunity
Innate (Nonspecific) Immunity
Physiologic and Chemical Barriers (Skin and Mucous Membranes)
Cellular Defenses
Phagocytosis and Extracellular Killing
Inflammation
Fever
Biologically Active Substances
Acquired Immunity
Cells Involved in the Immune Response
Lymphatic Organs
Lymphocyte Recirculation
The Fate of Antigen After Penetration
Interrelationship Between Innate and Acquired Immunity
Immunogens and Antigens
Requirements for Immunogenicity
Foreignness
High Molecular Weight
Chemical Complexity
Degradability
Haptens
Further Requirements for Immunogenicity
Primary and Secondary Responses
Antigenicity and Antigen-Binding Site
Epitopes Recognized by B Cells and T Cells
Major Classes of Antigens
Binding of Antigen with Antigen-Specific Antibodies or T Cells
Cross-Reactivity
Immunologic Adjuvants
Antibody Structure and Function
Isolation and Characterization
Structure of Light and Heavy Chains
Domains
Hinge Region
Variable Region
Immunoglobulin Variants
Isotypes of Immunoglobulins
Allotypes
Idiotypes
Structural Features of IgG
Biologic Properties of IgG
Agglutination and Formation of Precipitate
Passage Through the Placenta and Absorption in Neonates
Opsonization
Antibody-Dependent, Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity
Activation of Complement
Neutralization of Toxin
Immobilization of Bacteria
Neutralization of Viruses
Structural Features of IgM
Biological Properties of IgM
Agglutination
Isohemagglutinins
Activation of Complement
Structural and Biologic Properties of IgA
Role in Mucosal Infections
Bactericidal Activity
Antiviral Activity
Structural and Biologic Properties of IgD
Structural and Biologic Properties of IgE
Importance of IgE in Parasitic Infections and Hypersensitivity Reactions
Kinetics of the Antibody Response Following Immunization
Primary Response
Secondary Response
The Immunoglobulin Superfamily
Antigen-Antibody Interactions, Immune Assays, and Experimental Systems
Primary Interactions Between Antibody and Antigen
Association Constant
Affinity and Avidity
Secondary Interactions Between Antibody and Antigen
Agglutination Reactions
Precipitation Reaction
Immunoassays
Direct Binding Immunoassays
Solid-Phase Immunoassays
Immunofluorescence
Direct Immunofluorescence
Indirect Immunofluorescence
Fluorescence-Activated Cell-Sorting Analysis
Immunoabsorption and Immunoadsorption
Assays to Assess Lymphocyte Function
B-Cell and T-Cell Proliferation Assays
Antibody Production by B Cells
Effector Cell Assays for T Cells and NK Cells
Cell Culture Systems
Primary Cell Cultures and Cloned Lymphoid Cell Lines
Monoclonal and Genetically Engineered Antibodies
Monoclonal Antibodies
T-Cell Hybridomas
Genetically Engineered Molecules and Receptors
Experimental Animal Models
Inbred Strains
Adoptive Transfer
SCID Mice
Thymectomized and Congenically Athymic (Nude) Mice
Transgenic Mice and Gene Targeting
Transgenic Mice
Knockout Mice
The Genetic Basis of Antibody Structure
A Brief Review of Nonimmunoglobulin Gene Structure and Gene Expression
Genetic Events in the Synthesis of Immunoglobulin Chains
Organization and Rearrangement of Light-Chain Genes
Organization and Rearrangement of Heavy-Chain Genes
Regulation of Immunoglobulin Gene Expression
Class or Isotype Switching
Generation of Antibody Diversity
Presence of Multiple V Genes in the Germ Line
VJ and VDJ Combinatorial Association
Random Assortment of H and L Chains
Junctional and Insertional Diversity
Somatic Hypermutation
Somatic Gene Conversion
Receptor Editing
Biology of the B Lymphocyte
Sites of Early B-Cell Differentiation
Ontogeny of the B Lymphocyte
Early Phases of B-Cell Differentiation: Pro-B and Pre-B Cells
Immature B Cells
Mature B Cells
Anatomical Distribution of B-Cell Populations
B-1 or CD5[superscript +] B Cells
B-Cell Membrane Proteins
Antigen-Binding Molecules: Membrane Immunoglobulin
Signal Transduction Molecules Associated with Membrane Immunoglobulin
Molecules Involved in Antigen Presentation
Fc Receptor, CD32
CD21
The Role of The Major Histocompatibility Complex in the Immune Response
Variability of MHC Genes and Products
Genetic Polymorphism
Pattern of Expression
Codominant Expression
Structure of MHC Molecules
Structure of MHC Class I Moleules
Structure of MHC Class II Molecules
Function of MHC Molecules
Antigen Processing and Presentation
MHC Molecules Bind Peptides Derived from Self-Molecules
Inability to Respond to an Antigen
One Antigen can Trigger MHC Class I- or Class II-Restricted Responses
Diversity of MHC Molecules: MHC Association with Resistance and Susceptibility to Disease
Other Genes Within the MHC Region
Biology of the T Lymphocyte
Nature of the Antigen-Specific T-Cell Receptor
Molecules That Interact with Antigen
The T-Cell Receptor Complex
CD4 and CD8
Interaction of the TCR with MHC Molecules
[gamma delta] T Cells
Genes Coding for T-Cell Receptors
Generation of T-Cell Receptor Diversity
T-Cell Differentiation in the Thymus
Introduction
Thymocytes Interact with Thymic Nonlymphoid Cells
T-Cell Receptor Gene Rearrangement
Thymic Selection
Lymphocyte Trafficking to Tissues
Specialized Cells Present Antigen to T Cells
Activation and Function of T and B Cells
Activation of CD4[superscript +] T Cells
Paired Interactions Between the APC and the CD4[superscript +] T Cell
Intracellular Events in CD4[superscript +] T-cell Activation
Functions of Costimulatory Pairs
Subsets of CD4[superscript +] Cells Defined by Cytokine Production
CD4[superscript +] T Memory Cells
Function of CD8[superscript +] T Cells
Killing of Target Cells by Cytotoxic T Cells
T-Cell Recognition of Lipids
Other Ways to Activate Unprimed T Cells
Superantigens
Plant Proteins and Antibodies to T-Cell Surface Molecules
B-Cell Activation and Function
T-B Cooperation
The Carrier Effect
T-Independent Responses
B-Cell Activation in the Absence of T-Cell Help
Intracellular Pathways in B-Cell Activation
Control Mechanisms in the Immune Response
Tolerance
Induction of Tolerance in Immature T and B Lymphocytes
Regulation of Cell Death in Immature and Mature Lymphocytes
Induction of Tolerance in Mature T and B Lymphocytes
Fas-FasL Interactions
Mechanisms That Inhibit T- and B-Cell Activation
Other Potential Mechanisms of Regulating the Function of Lymphocytes
Active Suppression via T Cells
Idiotype Network
Regulation of the Response in the Individual
Age
Neurologic and Endocrine Factors
Expression of MHC Molecules
Effects of Cytokines
Effects of Antigen
Immunologically Privileged Sites
Immunosuppression by Drugs or Radiation
Cytokines
The History of Cytokines
General Properties of Cytokines
Functional Categories of Cytokines
Cytokines That Regulate Specific Immune Responses
Cytokines Produced by T[subscript H]1 and T[subscript H]2 Cells
Cytokines That Facilitate Innate Immune Responses and Activate Inflammatory Responses
Chemokines: Cytokines That Affect Leukocyte Movement
Cytokines That Stimulate Hematopoiesis
Cytokine Receptors
Cytokine Receptor-Mediated Signal Transduction
Role of Cytokines and Cytokine Receptors in Disease
Toxic Shock Syndrome
Bacterial Septic Shock
Cancers
Autoimmunity
Cytokine Antagonists and Inhibitors
Therapeutic Uses of Cytokines and Cytokine Receptors
Reversing Cellular Deficiences
Treatment of Immunodeficiences
Treatment of Cancer
Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases
Treatment of Transplant Patients
Treatment of Allergies
Complement
Historical Background
The Activation Pathways and Their Proteins
The Classical Pathway
The Lectin Pathway
The Alternative Pathway
The Terminal Pathway
Complement Control Proteins
Other Complement Receptors
Biological Activities of Complement
Complement and Disease
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Antibody-Mediated (Type I) Reactions
Historical Background
General Characteristics of Type I Hypersensitivity
Sensitization Phase
IgE Antibody Production is T Cell-Dependent
Activation Phase
Effector Phase
Preformed Mediators
Newly Synthesized Mediators
Late-Phase Reaction
Clinical Aspects of Type I Hypersensitivity
Allergic Rhinitis
Food Allergies
Atopic Dermatitis
Asthma
Detection
Intervention
The Protective Role of IgE
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Antibody-Mediated (Type II) Cytotoxic Reactions and Immune Complex (Type III) Reactions
Type II Cytotoxic Reactions
Introduction
Transfusion Reactions
Rh Incompatibility Reaction
Autoimmune Reactions
Drug-Induced Reactions
Type III Immune Complex Reactions
Introduction
Systemic Immune Complex Disease
Localized Immune Complex Disease
Infection-Associated Immune Complex Disease
Occupational Diseases (Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis)
Hypersensitivity Reactions: T-Cell-Mediated, Type IV--Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity
General Characteristics
Gross Appearance and Histology of the Reaction
Mechanism of DTH
Consequences of DTH
Variants of DTH
Treatment of Cell-Mediated Immunity
Autoimmunity
Autoimmunity and Disease
Criteria for Autoimmune Disease
Direct Proof
Indirect Evidence
Circumstantial Evidence
Etiology of Autoimmune Disease
Genetic Factors in Autoimmune Disease
Environmental Factors
Examples of Autoimmune Disease
Antibody-Mediated Autoimmune Disease
Immune Complex-Mediated Autoimmune Disease
T-Cell-Mediated Autoimmune Diseases
Autoimmune Diseases Arising From Deficiency in Components of Complement
Immunodeficiency and Other Disorders of the Immune System
Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Primary Immunodeficiency Syndromes
Secondary Immunodeficiency Syndromes
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Initial Description and Epidemiology
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Clinical Course
Prevention, Control, and Therapy of HIV Infection
Neoplasms of the Immune System
B-Cell Neoplasms
T-Cell Neoplasms
Hodgkin's Disease
Transplantation Immunology
Relationship Between Donor and Recipient
The Role of the Immune Response in Allograft Rejection
Clinical Characteristics of Allograft Rejection
Hyperacute Rejection
Acute Rejection
Chronic Rejection
Histocompatibility Antigens
MHC Class I and Class II Molecules as Targets in Allograft Rejection
Xenogeneic Transplantation
Tests for Histocompatibility Antigens
Serologic Detection of Transplantation Antigens
Genotyping of Transplantation Epitopes
Detection of Transplantation Antigens by Mixed Leukocyte Reaction
Prolongation of Allograft Survival
Antiinflammatory Agents
Cytotoxic Drugs
Cyclosporine, FK-506 (Tacrolimus), and Rapamycin (Sirolimus)
Antibody Therapy and Blocking of Costimulatory Molecules
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Graft-Versus-Host Reactions
Fetal--Maternal Relationship
Heart Transplantation: A Personal Story
Tumor Immunology
Tumor Antigens
Categories of Tumor Antigens
Normal Cellular Gene Products
Mutant Cellular Gene Products
Tumor Antigens Encoded by Viral Genes
Immunologic Factors Influencing the Incidence of Cancer
Effector Mechanisms in Tumor Immunity
B-Cell Responses
Cell-Mediated Responses
Cytokines
Limitations of the Effectiveness of the Immune Response Against Tumors
Immunodiagnosis
Detection Of Myeloma Proteins Produced By Plasma Cell Tumors
Detection of [alpha]-Fetoprotein
Carcinoembryonic Antigen
Detection of Prostate-Specific Antigen
Tumor Immunoprophylaxis
Immunotherapy
Resistance and Immunization to Infectious Diseases
Innate and Adaptive Immune Defenses
Host Defense Against the Various Classes of Microbial Pathogens
Immunity to Viruses
Immunity to Bacteria
Immunity to Parasites
Immunity to Fungi
Mechanisms by Which Pathogens Evade the Immune Response
Encapsulated Bacteria
Toxins
Antigenic Variation
Intracellular Survival
Suppression of the Immune System
Extracellular Enzymes
Expression of Antibody Binding Properties
Principles of Immunization
Objectives of Immunization
Historical Aspects of Immunization
Active Immunizations
Recommended Immunizations
Use of Vaccines in Selective Populations
Basic Mechanisms of Protection
Anatomic Location of Host Immune Response
Significance of the Primary and Secondary Responses
Protective Effect of the Immune Response
Age and Timing of Immunizations
Use of Mixed, Multiple Antigens
Precautions
Site of Administration of Antigen
Hazards
Recent Approaches to Production of Vaccines
Vaccines Produced by Recombinant DNA
Conjugated Polysaccharides
Synthetic Peptide Vaccines
Blocking of Specific Receptors
Anti-Idiotype Vaccines
Virus-Carrier Vaccine
Bacterium-Carrier Vaccine
DNA Vaccines
Toxoids
Passive Immunization
Passive Immunization Through Placental Antibody Transfer
Passive Immunization via Colostrum
Passive Antibody Therapy and Serum Therapy
Monoclonal and Polyclonal Preparations
Preparation and Properties of Human Immune Serum Globulin
Indications for the Use of Immune Globulin
Precautions on the Use of Immune Therapy
Immunotherapy
Antibody Therapies
Colony Stimulating Factors
Glossary
Partial List of CD Antigens
Index