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Preface to the Second Edition | |

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Preface to the First Edition | |

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Introduction | |

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Colloids | |

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Macromolecules | |

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Synthetic Polymers | |

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Biological Polymers | |

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Macromolecular Science | |

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References | |

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Syntheses of Macromolecular Compounds | |

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Radical Polymerization | |

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Complications | |

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Methods of Free-Radical Polymerization | |

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Some Well-Known Overall Reactions of Addition Polymers | |

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Ionic Polymerization | |

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Anionic Polymerization | |

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Cationic Polymerization | |

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Living Polymers | |

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Coordination Polymerization | |

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Stepwise Polymerization | |

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Kinetics of the Syntheses of Polymers | |

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Condensation Reactions | |

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Chain Reactions | |

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Polypeptide Synthesis | |

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Synthesis of Insulin | |

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Synthesis of Ribonucleus | |

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DNA Synthesis | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Distribution of Molecular Weight | |

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Review of Mathematical Statistics | |

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Binomial Distribution | |

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Poisson Distribution | |

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Gaussian Distribution | |

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One-Parameter Equation | |

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Condensation Polymers | |

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Addition Polymers | |

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Two-Parameter Equations | |

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Normal Distribution | |

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Logarithm Normal Distribution | |

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Types of Molecular Weight | |

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Experimental Methods for Determining Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distribution | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Macromolecular Thermodynamics | |

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Review of Thermodynamics | |

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[Delta]S of Mixing: Flory Theory | |

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[Delta]H of Mixing | |

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Cohesive Energy Density | |

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Contact Energy (First-Neighbor Interaction or Energy Due to Contact) | |

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[Delta]G of Mixing | |

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Partial Molar Quantities | |

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Partial Specific Volume | |

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Chemical Potential | |

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Thermodynamics of Dilute Polymer Solutions | |

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Vapor Pressure | |

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Phase Equilibrium | |

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Thermodynamics and Critical Phenomena | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Chain Configurations | |

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Preliminary Descriptions of a Polymer Chain | |

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Random Walk and the Markov Process | |

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Random Walk | |

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Markov Chain | |

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Random-Flight Chains | |

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Wormlike Chains | |

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Flory's Mean-Field Theory | |

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Perturbation Theory | |

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First-Order Perturbation Theory | |

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Cluster Expansion Method | |

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Chain Crossover and Chain Entanglement | |

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Concentration Effect | |

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Temperature Effect | |

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Tube Theory (Reptation Theory) | |

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Images of Individual Polymer Chains | |

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Scaling and Universality | |

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Scaling Concepts | |

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Correlation Function | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Liquid Crystals | |

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Mesogens | |

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Polymeric Liquid Crystals | |

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Low-Molecular Weight Liquid Crystals | |

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Main-Chain Liquid-Crystalline Polymers | |

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Side-Chain Liquid-Crystalline Polymers | |

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Segmented-Chain Liquid-Crystalline Polymers | |

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Shapes of Mesogens | |

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Liquid-Crystal Phases | |

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Mesophases in General | |

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Nematic Phase | |

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Smectic Phase | |

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Compounds Representing Some Mesophases | |

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Shape and Phase | |

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Decreasing Order and [Delta]H of Phase Transition | |

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Thermotropic and Lyotropic Liquid Crystals | |

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Kerr Effect | |

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Theories of Liquid-Crystalline Ordering | |

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Rigid-Rod Model | |

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Lattice Model | |

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De Genne's Fluctuation Theory | |

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Current Industrial Applications of Liquid Crystals | |

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Liquid Crystals Displays | |

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Electronic Devices | |

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References | |

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Rubber Elasticity | |

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Rubber and Rubberlike Materials | |

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Network Structure | |

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Natural Rubber and Synthetic Rubber | |

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Thermodynamics of Rubber | |

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Statistical Theory of Rubber Elasticity | |

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Gels | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Viscosity and Viscoelasticity | |

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Viscosity | |

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Capillary Viscometers | |

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Intrinsic Viscosity | |

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Treatment of Intrinsic Viscosity Data | |

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Stokes' Law | |

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Theories in Relation to Intrinsic Viscosity of Flexible Chains | |

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Chain Entanglement | |

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Biological Polymers (Rigid Polymers, Inflexible Chains) | |

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Viscoelasticity | |

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Rouse Theory | |

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Zimm Theory | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Osmotic Pressure | |

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Osmometers | |

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Determination of Molecular Weight and Second Virial Coefficient | |

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Theories of Osmotic Pressure and Osmotic Second Virial Coefficient | |

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McMillan-Mayer Theory | |

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Flory Theory | |

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Flory-Krigbaum Theory | |

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Kurata-Yamakawa Theory | |

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des Cloizeaux-de Gennes Scaling Theory | |

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Scatchard's Equation for Macro Ions | |

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Ensembles | |

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Partition Functions | |

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Mean-Field Theory and Renormalization Group Theory | |

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Lagrangian Theory | |

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Green's Function | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Diffusion | |

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Translational Diffusion | |

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Fick's First and Second Laws | |

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Solution to Continuity Equation | |

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Physical Interpretation of Diffusion: Einstein's Equation of Diffusion | |

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Size, Shape, and Molecular Weight Determinations | |

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Size | |

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Shape | |

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Molecular Weight | |

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Concentration Dependence of Diffusion Coefficient | |

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Scaling Relation for Translational Diffusion Coefficient | |

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Measurements of Translational Diffusion Coefficient | |

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Measurement Based on Fick's First Law | |

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Measurement Based on Fick's Second Law | |

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Rotational Diffusion | |

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Flow Birefringence | |

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Fluorescence Depolarization | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Sedimentation | |

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Apparatus | |

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Sedimentation Velocity | |

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Measurement of Sedimentation Coefficients: Moving-Boundary Method | |

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Svedberg Equation | |

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Application of Sedimentation Coefficient | |

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Sedimentation Equilibrium | |

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Archibald Method | |

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Van Holde-Baldwin (Low-Speed) Method | |

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Yphantis (High-Speed) Method | |

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Absorption System | |

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Density Gradient Sedimentation Equilibrium | |

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Scaling Theory | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Optical Rotatory Dispersion and Circular Dichroism | |

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Polarized Light | |

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Optical Rotatory Dispersion | |

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Circular Dichroism | |

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Cotton Effect | |

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Correlation Between ORD and CD | |

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Comparison of ORD and CD | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Electrophoresis | |

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High-Performance Liquid Chromatography | |

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Chromatographic Terms and Parameters | |

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Theory of Chromatography | |

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Types of HPLC | |

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Electrophoresis | |

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Basic Theory | |

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General Techniques of Modern Electrophoresis | |

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Agarose Gel Electrophoresis and Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis | |

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Southern Blot, Northern Blot, and Western Blot | |

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Sequencing DNA Fragments | |

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Isoelectric Focusing and Isotachophoresis | |

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Field-Flow Fractionation | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Light Scattering | |

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Rayleigh Scattering | |

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Fluctuation Theory (Debye) | |

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Determination of Molecular Weight and Molecular Interaction | |

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Two-Component Systems | |

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Multicomponent Systems | |

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Copolymers | |

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Correction of Anisotropy and Deporalization of Scattered Light | |

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Internal Interference | |

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Determination of Molecular Weight and Radius of Gyration of the Zimm Plot | |

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Experimental Techniques of the Zimm Plot | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Fourier Series | |

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Preliminaries | |

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Fourier Series | |

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Basic Fourier Series | |

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Fourier Sine Series | |

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Fourier Cosine Series | |

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Complex Fourier Series | |

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Other Forms of Fourier Series | |

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Conversion of Infinite Series into Integrals | |

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Fourier Integrals | |

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Fourier Transforms | |

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Fourier Transform Pairs | |

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Convolution | |

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Definition | |

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Convolution Theorem | |

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Convolution and Fourier Theory: Power Theorem | |

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Extension of Fourier Series and Fourier Transform | |

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Lorentz Line Shape | |

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Correlation Function | |

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Discrete Fourier Transform | |

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Discrete and Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform | |

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Application of DFT | |

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Fast Fourier Transform | |

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Appendix | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Neutron Scattering, and Laser Light Scattering | |

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Small-Angle X-ray Scattering | |

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Apparatus | |

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Guinier Plot | |

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Correlation Function | |

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On Size and Shape of Proteins | |

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Small-Angle Neutron Scattering | |

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Six Types of Neutron Scattering | |

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Theory | |

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Dynamics of a Polymer Solution | |

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Coherently Elastic Neutron Scattering | |

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Comparison of Small-Angle Neutron Scattering with Light Scattering | |

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Contrast Factor | |

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Lorentzian Shape | |

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Neutron Spectroscopy | |

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Laser Light Scattering | |

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Laser Light-Scattering Experiment | |

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Autocorrelation and Power Spectrum | |

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Measurement of Diffusion Coefficient in General | |

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Application to Study of Polymers in Semidilute Solutions | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Electronic and Infrared Spectroscopy | |

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Ultraviolet (and Visible) Absorption Spectra | |

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Lambert-Beer Law | |

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Terminology | |

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Synthetic Polymers | |

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Proteins | |

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Nucleic Acids | |

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Fluorescence Spectroscopy | |

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Fluorescence Phenomena | |

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Emission and Excitation Spectra | |

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Quenching | |

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Energy Transfer | |

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Polarization and Depolarization | |

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Infrared Spectroscopy | |

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Basic Theory | |

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Absorption Bands: Stretching and Bending | |

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Infrared Spectroscopy of Synthetic Polymers | |

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Biological Polymers | |

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Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Protein Molecules | |

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Protein Sequence and Structure | |

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Sequence | |

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Secondary Structure | |

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Tertiary Structure | |

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Quarternary Structure | |

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Protein Structure Representations | |

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Representation Symbols | |

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Representations of Whole Molecule | |

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Protein Folding and Refolding | |

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Computer Simulation | |

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Homolog Modeling | |

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De Novo Prediction | |

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Protein Misfolding | |

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Biological Factor: Chaperones | |

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Chemical Factor: Intra- and Intermolecular Interactions | |

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Brain Diseases | |

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Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics | |

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Ribosomes: Site and Function of Protein Synthesis | |

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References | |

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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance | |

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General Principles | |

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Magnetic Field and Magnetic Moment | |

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Magnetic Properties of Nuclei | |

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Resonance | |

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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance | |

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Chemical Shift ([delta]) and Spin-Spin Coupling Constant (J) | |

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Relaxation Processes | |

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Spin-Lattice Relaxation and Spin-Spin Relaxation | |

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Nuclear Quadrupole Relaxation and Overhauser Effect | |

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NMR Spectroscopy | |

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Pulse Fourier Transform Method | |

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One-Dimensional NMR | |

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Two-Dimensional NMR | |

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging | |

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NMR Spectra of Macromolecules | |

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Poly(methyl methacrylate) | |

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Polypropylene | |

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Deuterium NMR Spectra of Chain Mobility in Polyethylene | |

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Two-Dimensional NMR Spectra of Poly-[gamma]-benzyl-L-glutamate | |

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Advances in NMR Since 1994 | |

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Apparatus | |

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Techniques | |

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Two Examples of Protein NMR | |

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A Membrane Protein | |

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A Brain Protein: Prion | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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X-Ray Crystallography | |

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X-Ray Diffraction | |

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Crystals | |

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Miller Indices, hkl | |

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Unit Cells or Crystal Systems | |

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Crystal Drawing | |

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Symmetry in Crystals | |

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Bravais Lattices | |

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Point Group and Space Group | |

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Fourier Synthesis | |

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Atomic Scattering Factor | |

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Structure Factor | |

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Fourier Synthesis of Electron Density | |

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Phase Problem | |

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Patterson Synthesis | |

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Direct Method (Karle-Hauptmann Approach) | |

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Refinement | |

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Crystal Structure of Macromolecules | |

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Synthetic Polymers | |

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Proteins | |

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DNA | |

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Advances in X-Ray Crystallography Since 1994 | |

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X-Ray Sources | |

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New Instruments | |

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Structures of Proteins | |

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Protein Examples: Polymerse and Anthrax | |

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Neutron Diffraction | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Author Index | |

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Subject Index | |