Art and Science of Chemical Analysis

ISBN-10: 0471373699

ISBN-13: 9780471373698

Edition: 2001

Authors: Christie G. Enke

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Teaching students how to apply techniques of analytical chemistry, this text shows students how the differentiating characteristics of the substances to be analysed form the basis of all analytical techniques.
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Book details

List price: $155.95
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/27/2000
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 528
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 3.080
Language: English

Chemical Analysis, What, Who, and Why
Chemical Quantites
Units Involved in the Expression of Amount
The Differentiating Characteristic
Devising a Probe for the Differentiating Characteristic
Anticipating the REsponse to the Probe
Measuring the Response to the Probe
Quantitation
Assessing Errors and Interferences
Detection
Assessing Confidence in the Results
Identification
Identification by Deductive Reasoning
"Analyze This for Me!"
Separation
Single-Step Separation
Separation by Dispersion
Chemical Analysis in Science and Society
Challenges and Rewards
The Evolution of Chemical Analysis
Practice Questions and Problems
The Elements of Measurement
Measurement, Interpretation, and Observation
Measurements and Interpretations
Information from Sets of Measurement Data
Sources of Measurement Numbers
Measurement Qualities
Elements of Measurement Systems
Conversion Devices
Input/Output Relationships
Examples of Measurement Systems
The Analog Thermometer
The Ammeter
The Analog Clock
pH Paper
Characteristics of Scalar Readouts
Linear Scales
Scalar Readout Characteristics
Interpolation Errors
Verniers
Scales in Arcs or Circles
Volume-to-Length Converters
The Graduated Cylinder
Scale Indication by Liquid Level
The Buret
The Volumetric Flask
The Pipet
Effects of Temperature on Volumetric Measurements
Characteristics of Digital Readouts
The Number Register
The Stepwise form of the Transfer Function
Range and Resolution
Measurements Involving ADCs
The Discrete Nature of the Data
Stimulus-Response Measurements
Null Measurements and Conversion Devices
Double-Pan Balance
Null Measurement Characteristics
Null Conversion Devices
The Electronic Analytical Balance
Measurement Accuracy and Precision
Measures of Precision
Confidence Intervals
Significant Figures
Measurement Precision in Data Processing
Comparing Means and Deviations
Comparing the Mean with an Accepted Value
Comparing the Means of Two Data Sets
Limit of Detection
Comparing the Deviations of Two Data Sets
Rejection of Data
Least Squares Method for Linear Plots
The Straight Line
Linear Regression
Precision of the Regression Results
Precision of Values Calculated from the Working Curve
Practice Questions and Problems
Acidity, Activity, and pH
Acids, Bases, and Their Reactions
Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
Equilibrium Constants
Acids and Bases in Water
Reactions of Acids with Water
Relationship Between [H subscript 3 O superscript +] and [OH superscript -] in Water
Reactions of Bases with Water
Logarithmic Concentration Expressions
Other Amphiprotic Solvents
Concentrations, Activities, and pH
Chemical Potential
Chemical Activity
Activity Coefficients
Mean Ionic Activities
Activity Coefficients of Neutral Species
Equilibrium Constants
The Equilibrium State
Thermodynamic and Formal Equilibrium Constants
The Effect of Ionic Strength on K'[subscript a]
Using Formal Equilibrium Constants
pH Electrode and the Definition of pH
The pH Electrode
pH Standards
The Definition of pH
The Measurement of pH
Practice Questions and Problems
Analysis by Acid--Base Reactivity
Equilibrium Concentrations
The Fraction of the Conjugate Pair in Each Form
Solving for [H subscript 3 O superscript +] in Solutions of Acids
Solving for [H subscript 3 O superscript +] in Solutions of Bases
Exact Equilibrium Expressions
Quantitation by Acid-Base Titration
Making the Standard Titrant
Adding Known Volumes of Standard Solution
Detecting the Response to the Titrant
Using an Indicator
Using a pH Meter
Concentration Effect in Strong Acid-Base Titration
Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers
Titration of Weak Acids
Buffer Solutions
Titration of Weak Bases
Logarithmic Concentration Plots
Constructing Logarithmic Concentration Diagrams
Solving Problems with Log Plots
Obtaining Titration Curve Points from Log Plots
Quantitation in Polyprotic Systems
Alpha Plots for Polyprotic Systems
Logarithmic Concentration Diagrams
Titration Curves in Polyprotic Systems
Titrations of Acid Mixtures
Other Analyses by Acid-Base Reaction
Identification by Acid-Base Reactivity
Detection by Acid-Base Reactivity
Separation by Acid-Base Reactivity
Practice Questions and Problems
Analysis by Absorption of Light
Colored Solutions and White Light
The Wave Nature of Light
The Particle Nature of Light
Sources of Light
Light Absorbing Solutions
Measuring the Absorption of Light
Developing the Probe
Anticipating the Response to the Probe
Detecting the Response to the Probe
Obtaining the Fraction of Light Transmitted
Relating Light Absorption to Concentration
Rationalizing the Working Curve
The Absorbance-Concentration Relationship
Calibration of the Working Curve
Instruments for Absorption Measurements
Photometers
Spectrometers
Flow Injection Analysis
The Absorbance Spectrum
Rationalizing the Absorbance Spectrum
Obtaining an Absorbance Spectrum
Scanning Spectrometers
Array Detector Spectrometers
Fourier Transform Spectrometers
Attenuated Reflectance Spectroscopy
Spectral Precision and Accuracy
Identification by the Absorption of Light
Compound Identification by Spectral Matching
Deduction of Molecular Structure and Composition
Separation by the Absorption of Light
Mixture Spectra
Resolution by Simultaneous Equations
Study Questions, Section I
Practice Questions and Problems
Analysis by Photon Emission
Photon Excitation of Molecular Species
Photon Absorption
Scattering of the Excitation Radiation
Vibrational Relaxation
Molecular Fluorescence
Phosphorescence
Fluorescence and Phosphoresence Spectrometry
Quantitation
Excitation and Emission Spectra
Phosphorescence Measurements
Raman Spectrometry
Excitation from Chemical Reactivity
Chemiluminescence Measurements
Chemiluminescence Applications
Thermal Excitation and Atomic Emission
Flame Excitation
Plasma Excitation
Creating the Aerosol
Photon Excitation of Atomic Species
Flames for use with Photon Excitation
Furnaces for Sample Atomization
Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
Practice Questions and Problems
Analysis by Complexation Reactivity
Complexation Reactions
Bonds Formed in Complexation
Complexing Species
Reaction Rates
Equilibrium Concentrations
Formation of a 1:1 Complex
Solving for Concentrations in Complexation Systems
Formation of Higher Order Complexes
Alpha Plots
The Effect of [H subscript 3 O superscript +] on Complex Equilibria
Hydrolysis of the Coordination Center
Hydrolysis of the Ligand
Hydrolysis of Ligand and Coordination Center
Quantitation by Complexation Titration
Standard Titrants
Titration Curves
Achieving Selectivity with EDTA Titrations
Equivalence Point Detection
Indicators
Displacement Titration
Back Titrations
Specific Ion Electrodes for Equivalence Point Detection
Light Absorption for Equivalence Point Detection
Log Concentration Plots
1:1 Complex Formation
Stepwise Complex Formation Systems
Prediction of Titration Curves
Spot Tests, Test Strips, Flow Injection Analysis and Immunoassays
Spot Tests
Test Strips
Flow Injection Analysis
Immunoassays
Practice Questions and Problems
Analysis by Precipitation Reactivity
Precipitation Reactions
The Equilibrium Expressions
The Crystallization of Precipitates
The Nucleation of Precipitates
Equilibrium Concentrations
Simple Solubility Calculations
Effect of Hydrolysis on Solubility
Effect of Complexation on Solubility
Quantitation by Precipitation Titration
Frequently Used Reactions
Titration Curves
Equivalence Point Detection
Logarithmic Concentration Plots
Unsymmetrical Log Plots
Estimation of Titration Curves
Separation by Precipitation
Quantitation by Weighing the Precipitate
Spot Tests and Test Strips
Practice Questions and Problems
Analysis by Electrode Potential
Electron Exchange at Metals
The Equilibrium Potential Difference
Metal-Solution Potentials from Two Related Ionic Species
Calculating Redox Equilibrium Electrode Potentials
Formal and Thermodynamic Standard Potentials
Relating Redox Concentrations to Equilibrium Potentials
The pH Dependence of Equilibrium Potentials
The Hydrogen Electrode
Measurement of Electrode Potentials
The Necessity of a Reference Electrode
Calculating the Expected Measurement Voltage
Relating Electrode Voltage to Activity and Concentration
Electrodes of the Second Kind
Log Concentration Plots for Redox Couples
Lines for the Case Where Ox and Red are Dissolved
Lines for the Case Where Only Ox or Red is Dissolved
Lines for Secondary Reaction Species
Using Log Plots for Cell Equilibrium Potentials
Log Plots of Unsymmetrical Couples
Ion Reactions on Membrane Surfaces
H[superscript +] Reaction with a Glass Surface
Calculation of the Interfacial Potential
Measurement of Interfacial Potential
Use of the Measured Voltage to Calculate pH
Transistor Chemical Sensors
Interfering Electrode Reactions
Gas-sensing Electrodes
The Use of Ion-Surface Interactions for Ions Other than H[superscript +]
Ion Diffusion Through Porous Membranes
Development of Electrical Potential Difference
Measurement of Membrane Potential
Electrode Types and Interferents
Liquid Junction Potentials
The Equivalence of Response Function for all Electrodes
Selectivity and Detection With Electrodes
Practice Questions and Problems
Analysis by Oxidation--Reduction Reactivity
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Combining Electron Half-Reactions
Balancing Complete Redox Reactions
Equilibrium Constants for Redox Reactions
Formal and Thermodynamic Equilibrium Constants
Equilibrium Concentrations
Approximation Method for Equilibrium Concentrations
Algebraic Method for Equilibrium Calculations
Quantitation by Redox Titration
Titration with Ce(IV)
Assuring Analyte Oxidation State Before Titration
Titration Curves
Multiple Equivalence Point Titrations
Equivalence Point Detection
Iodine and Thiosulfate
Log Concentration Plots
Redox Log Plots with a Constant Activity Reactant
Log Plots with Asymmetry and pH Complications
The Iodine, Iodide System
Points on Titration Curves from Log Concentration Plots
Karl Fischer Titration for Water
Quantitation by Electrolytic Redox Reaction
Electrolytic Reactions
Coulombs and Moles
Coulometry
Electrogravimetry
Coulometric Titration
Diffusion-Limited Electrodes
Test Strips, Spot Tests and FIA
Practice Questions and Problems
Analysis by Interphase Partition
The Liquid-Liquid Interface: Extraction
The Gas-Liquid Interface: Distillation
The Gas-Solid Interface: Adsorption
Adsorption Isotherms
Solid Phase Extraction
Continuous Partition: Chromatography
The Fraction of Time Spent in Each Phase
Moving One of the Phases
Measures of Effectiveness
Effect of Mobile Phase Flow Rate
Gas Chromatography
The Instrument
Sample Injection
The Column
The Detector
The General Elution Problem
Peak Overlap
Information Obtained from Gas Chromatograms
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
The HPLC System
Partition Chromatography
Variations on the Chromatographic Theme
Planar Chromatography
Mass Spectrometric Detection
Multichannel Chromatographic Detection
Practice Questions and Problems
Analysis by Biochemical Reactivity
Enzyme Reactivity
Varieties of Enzymes and Reactivity
Enzyme Activation and Inhibition
The Effect of pH
Enzyme Stability
Kinetics of Enzyme Reactions
First-Order Reaction Rates
Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions
The Michaelis-Menten Equation
Analytical Significance of K[subscript M] and K[subscript cat]
Kinetic Methods of Analysis
Continuous Flow Methods
Stopped Flow Methods
Quenching Methods
Applications of Kinetic Analysis with Enzymes
Antigen-Antibody Reactivity
Antibodies and Their Generation
Detecting the Antibody-Antigen Reaction
Immobilized Enzymes and Antibodies
Bonding Biochemical Reagents
Containing Biochemical Reagents
Separation with Biochemical Reactions
Separation on the Basis of Size
Separation on the Basis of Complexation Reactivity
Separation on the Basis of Mass and Density
Immunoassay
Direct Binding Reactions
Competitive Binding Reactions
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT)
Applications of Immunoassay
Biochemically Based Sensors
Photon Emission Sensors
Photon Absorption Sensors
Electrode Potential Sensors
Electrode Current Sensors
Practice Questions and Problems
Background Materials
Stoichiometric Ratios in Chemical Compounds and Reactions
Molecular Formulas
Reaction Stoichiometry
Ionic Reactions
Combining Quantities
Logarithms and Exponents
Logarithms
Antilogarithms
"p" Units
Logarithmic Scales
Natural Logarithms
Operations with Exponents
Addition and Subtraction
Multiplication and Division
Operations with Logarithms
Electrical Quantities and Their Relationships
Electrical Conductors and Insulators
Separation of Charge
Electrical Current
Electrical Capacitance
Electrical Signals
Appendices
Tables of Activity Coefficients and a[subscript X]
Calculated Values of Acitivity Coefficient Using the DHE
Table of Ion Size Parameters, a[subscript X], for Inorganic Ions
Table of Ion Size Parameters, a[subscript X], for Organic Ions
K[deg subscript a] Values for Weak Acids in Water
Table of Complex Formation (K[deg subscript f] and K'[subscript f]) Values
K[deg subscript sp] and K'[subscript sp] Values for Some Precipitates
Standard Reduction Potentials
International Atomic Weights
Useful Constants and Conversions
Prefixes for Units and their Multiplication Factors
Techniques Discussed and Their Location
Index
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